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A construction worker from the 1800's who survived after an iron bar pierced through his eye and out his skull. This destroyed much of his brains left frontal lobe. He was reported to have significant changed in personality following the trauma.
Piere Paul Broca in 1800's, discovered that damage to the interior frontal gyrus inhibbited speech, but intact comprehension this area is now Broca's area, and the deficit of language production with intact comprehension is called Broca's aphasia.
Carl Wernicke, a neurologist in 1800's studied the link between the left posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus and language comprehension. The area studied is named the Wernicke's area and damage to this area is linked with impaired comprehension and intact speech, specifically using the correct words. This is called receptive or wernicke's apahsia
Responsible for mapping the brain
A behavioural neurologist. Mapped disconnection models based on lesion analysis.
Roger Sperry, studied split brain patients (people who had there corpus collosum cut). This was crucial in understanding hemisphere asymmetries of function (like language on the left) Think the divided field test. (This series of studies was continued with dichotic listening).
Simon Baron-Cohen a current and important researcher into autisim. Has a theory that it is the extreme male brain (as in systemising over empathy).
Studies into left handedness, looked at why there are less left handed people (animals are 50/50 split)
Henry Molaison, had a bilateral medial temporal lobe resection, completely removing his hippocampus (by Scoville). Had global anterograde amnesia and some retrograde amnesia. The studies on HM were highly significant especially in the differentiation between explicit and implicit memory. The mirror drawing task, highlighted procedural memory (implicit).
Sergie Korsakoff, a Russian neuropsychiatrist, studied alcohol psychosis. This is called Korsakoff's psychosis. A degenerating disease of the brain cased by a lack of thiamine (due to liver failure). This causes degeneration of the dienchephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus and mammilary bodies), with many symptoms.
Current person of influence on attention and the role of the executive, introduced the dynamic filtering theory which is describing the role of the prefrontal cortex role in activating and repressing goal directed mechanisms.
Sigmund Freud, a father of modern psychology and key figure in the field of psychoanalysis. Introduced the idea of therapy as we know it today. Key terms related are: Free association, unconscious/conscious, id, ego, superego, his stages of development (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency then Genital), Oedipus complex, repression, dream therapy, important to note not pursued scientifically more of a hermeneutic study. Continuing ideas: stages of development especially trauma in early stages effects later life.
- Jean Piaget a Swiss psychologist. Known for his observational studies on children. Introduced stages of cognitive development.
- Sensorimotor stage (birth -2 yrs) experience the world through sense and movement (divided into 5 stages)
- Preoperational stage (2-7 yrs) internal representation of the world through language and mental imagery, Start seeing the world from others perspectives
- Concrete operational stage (7-12 yrs) Become able to think logically, not just intuitively. Can classify objects into coherent categories, can also understand that events can have multiple influences not just one.
- Formal operational stage (12+ yrs) Can think systematically and reason what might be as well as what is
- Also looked at mechanisims of development specifically accomodation and assimilation (then equilibration).
Ivan Pavlov a Russian who is famous for his studies on conditioned reflexes 'classical conditioning', especially with dogs measuring there saliva, using a bell/electric shock and food.
Burrhas Skinner, an american behaviourist. created the operant conditioning chamber. And using positive and negative reinforcement (pigeons in the box).
Albert Bandura, highly influential in the link between behavioural and cognitive psychology. Renound for creating the social learning theory and the experiment with the bobo doll. Key ideas for learning is attention, retention (remebering what was observed) and motivation (a good reason) to want to adopt the behaviour
Alfred Adler, worked alongside Freud, but came to disagreements. Was highly influential in counselling and a socially orientated view of personality.
Carl Jung, a swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. Quite disregarded and out of favour now. Highly spiritual.
Abraham Maslow, a humanist looked believed all people have a strong desire to reach their potential or 'self acualisation. This is inhibited by where you are within the hierachy of needs. Starting at psyiological, safety, love/belonging, Esteem, Self Actualisation.
Charles Darwin, influential thinker who introduced the natural selection and that we all come from a common ancestory (origin of the species book). From his initial ideas many ideas have influenced psychology like the EEA (environment of evolutionary adaption)
David Rosenhan and his pseudo-patients, highlighting that one symptom (hallucinations) of schizophrenia is insufficient as a diagnosing standard. He also highlighted significant flaws in the psychiatric institutes 1/ the small amount of time with Drs and large amount of time with nurses. 2/ the time it took to release the patients who claimed to be normal but were all forced to take antipsychotic drugs and say they were ill 3/ it took months to release some patients.
Brown and Harris
Conducted a study on depression and its links to life events. Found that the most depressed people with single females with two or more children under five living in a council block in Camberwell London. More importantly they looked at risk factors that create a vunerability for depression.
Donald Broadbent, created the filter model which is based on Atkinson and Shiffrins multi-store memory model. the filter model highlights a theoretical filter between the sensory input and the short term memory. This filter funcions with a buffer and allows for two types stimuli to be handled at one time (using the buffer). This theory has difficulty explaining the cocktail party effect.
Anne Marie Treisman works with visual attention. The 'feature integration theory' theorises that humans percieve individual features before percieving the object as a whole. This is effected by the similarity, number, spatial orientation of surrounding objects or distractors.
Robert Sternberg created the triachic theory of intelligence as initial intelligence tested only 'book intelligence' or vocabulary, comprehension, memory and problem solving. with significant holes in creative and street-smart intelligence.
Aaron Beck, a father of cognitive therapy. Created a hopelessness scale (to spot suicide likeliness), rather than a freudian idea of repression etc he looked at the beliefs people had about themselves. Began what is a highly successful field of CBT
- Lawrence Kholberg. Created stages of moral development based on Piaget. The theory states that moral reasoning is the basis for ethical behaviour.
- Level 1 (Pre-Conventional)
- 1. Obedience and punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?)
- 2. Self-interest orientation (What's in it for me?) (Paying for a benefit)
- Level 2 (Conventional)
- 3. Interpersonal accord and conformity (Social norms) (The good boy/good girl attitude)
- 4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Law and order morality)
- Level 3 (Post-Conventional)
- 5. Social contract orientation.
- 6. Universal ethical principles (Principled conscience)
- Specifically known for the Heinz dilemma (the drug story with a ill woman and man who steals it).
Atkinson and Shiffrin
Created the multi-store model of memory. Saw the STM memory or working memory as a temporary store that required repetition to take it to LTM
Created the Strange Stituation experiment where she observed attachment security. Key elements of the theory were the types of attachment (Anxious resistant insecure attachment, Anxious Avoident insecure attachment, Disorganised attachment, and secure attachment).
McCrae and Costa
Created the 5 factor model personality test (OCEAN) openness to experience, contentiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neurotocisim.
John Bowlby was a highly influential psychologist who studied attachment. He studied deprived children and concluded that infants need a warm, intimate and continuous relationship with a mother or permanent mother substitute. Without this they may have significant mental health consequences. Mary Ainsworth a student of Bowlby's continued attachment studies.
Stanely Milgram, was a social psychologist who studied obedience to authority figures. Specifically the willingness of people to obey the instructions of a authority figure who asked them do something that conflicted with their conscience, The Milgram experiment showed that people are willing to disregard there own conscience when affirmed and directed by an authority figure.