MHIII Final

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MHIII Final
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2011-05-05 16:08:46
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MHIII FINAL EXAM NOTE CARDS
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  1. Darmstadt
    Place where Avant-garde rose. In Germnany. Founded by Wolfgang Steinecke, a wealthy musicologist.
  2. Donaueschinger Musiktage
    Another famous festival for contemporary music.
  3. Wolfgang Steinecke
    Wealthy musicologist who founded Darmstadt.
  4. Oliver Messiaen
    In Paris, Messiaen was teaching a wide range of students and introduced students to the "Second Viennese School". Star pupil was Pierre Boulez.
  5. Mode de valeurs et d'intensites
    • 2nd in a set of pieces called Quatre etudes de
    • rhythme.

    1949-1950- solo piano works.

    --structure defined by predetermined elements.

    One off piece by Messiaen – did not continue on this path.

    Boulez furthered this technique in his Structures – Book 1

    1952- composed for two pianos.
  6. Pierre Boulez
    Studied in Paris with Messiaen. Boulez mastered serial technique by 1945.
  7. Structures Book 1
    Important works that led to total serialism.

    Boulez furthered this technique in his Structures – Book 1

    1952- composed for two pianos.
  8. La marteau sans maltre
    "The Hammer without a Master". ByKarlheinz Stockhausen. Setting of three poems by surrealist poet Rene Char. Presented at Darnstadt.

    • Alto flute, xylorimba, vibraphone, guitar, viola, unpitched
    • percussion and alto voice.



    • Increased demands of this type of music and the increase in
    • available technology allowed composers to realize their most extreme ideas in
    • electronic music.
  9. Repons
  10. Domaine Musical
  11. Ensemble InterContemporain
  12. Karlheinz Stockhausen
    • Kreuzspiel – 1951:
    • also presented that summer at Darmstadt.

    Boulez sought to expand to a ‘richer’ harmonic world.

    But still base it on 12-tone row or serialism.

    “Frequency multipication” or “pitch multipication”
  13. Kreuzspiel
    • Kreuzspiel – 1951:
    • also presented that summer at Darmstadt.

    Boulez sought to expand to a ‘richer’ harmonic world.

    But still base it on 12-tone row or serialism.

    “Frequency multipication” or “pitch multipication”
  14. Gesang der Junglinge
    By Pierre Schaffer.

    • -widely considered
    • first electronic piece with enough aesthetic content to rival concert works
    • that were being produced.
  15. Hymnen
    “National Anthems”

    Divided into “Regions”
  16. Total Serialism
    • Total serialism – complete predetermination of all musical
    • aspects, no choice after controls are decided.
  17. Punctualism
  18. Pitch Multipication
    Pierre Boulez described an operation he called pitch multiplication, which is somewhat akin to the Cartesian product of pitch class sets. Given two sets, the result of pitch multiplication will be the set of sums (modulo 12) of all possible pairings of elements between the original two sets.
  19. Elektronische Musike
    -Created in Cologne

    -Idea of creating “real” sounds out of artificial means.

    • -could only use artificial sounds – sounds produced by
    • “synthesizer”
  20. Musique concrete
    • originated in Paris by the founder of the first electronic music studio
    • in paris Pierre Schaffer. Concrete
    • music, inspired by film and radio soundtracks (created solely out of recorded,
    • found “Concrete” sound objects.
  21. Electro-acoustical Music
  22. IRCAM
    • Boulez - 1967 – started to push for the founding and building of this
    • ‘meeting place’

    • -What became IRCAM (Institute for the research and
    • coordination of acoustics and music)

    --funds were granted in 1970 by George Pompidou.

    1977 – completion of IRCAM main campus.

    • Boulez wanted to create a musical composition that would
    • highlight the possibilities available by IRCAM technologies.



    • Boulez wanted to free interaction between live performers
    • and electronic sounds.
  23. Cologne Studio for Electronic Music
    Stockhausen – worked in both the Paris and Cologne studios

    Interested in bringing the technological gap between the two.
  24. John Cage
    -Studied with Henry Cowell in NYC.

    -Returned to LA to study with Schoenberg at UCLA.

    • -Cage flirted for a short time with 12-tone compositions
    • (used 25-note rows)

    • -late 1930’s-early 1940’s: began working as a rehearsal
    • pianist for modern dance groups and ballet.

    -Merce Cunningham – choreographer – met in Seattle.

    -Cage left behind the idea of pitched/harmonic music.

    -Composed percussion works for dance.
  25. Sonatas and Interludes
    It was composed in 1946–1948, shortly after Cage's introduction to Indian philosophy and the teachings of art historian Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, both of which became major influences on the composer's later work.

    In each sonata a short sequence of natural numbers and fractions defines the structure of the work and that of its parts, informing structures as localized as individual melodic lines.
  26. Music of Changes
    1952- composed for pianist David Tudor

    --Boulez was interested in open-form and also end results.
  27. 4'33"
    Written in 1952. All movements are tacet. Can be played by any instrument.
  28. Number Pieces
    • in the 80’s and 90’s – received numerous amount of
    • commissions

    1987-1992 = series of “Number Pieces”



    One

    -Solo Piano

    -Number in title = number of performers.

    One2

    52 number pieces – ranging from “one” to “108”

    all use “time bracket” notation

    Epitome of “open form” pieces.
  29. Prepared Piano
    • -Cage had to rectify need for percussive sounds but no room for
    • percussion instruments.

    • --to do this, he developed the Prepared Piano – reproduce
    • sounds of large percussion ensemble.

    --but only require 1 performer.

    --influence of Indian philosophy
  30. I Ching (Book of Changes)
  31. Aleatoricism
  32. Interdeterminacy
  33. Time Brackets
    One2

    52 number pieces – ranging from “one” to “108”

    all use “time bracket” notation

    Epitome of “open form” pieces.

    The vast majority of these works were composed using Cage's time bracket technique: the score consists of short fragments (frequently just one note, with or without dynamics) and indications, in minutes and seconds, of when the fragment should start and when it should end.
  34. George Rochberg
    1950 – had a residency at the American Academy in Rome

    -met Luigi Dallapiccola

    -main Italian composer of 12 tone music.

    -using it in a Bergian way.



    • 1950’s and early 60’s – Rochberg composing in strict serial
    • style.

    • -really frustrated by rhythmic/tempo constraints of serial
    • music.

    -late 50’s early 60’s uses “free notation for rhythm.
  35. String Quartet # 3
    By Rochberg

    String Quartet #3

    -premiered in 1972.

    -associated with Beethoven and Mahler.

    -3 “abteilungs”.

    -5 movement work grouped into 3 abteilungs (“divisions”)
  36. Alfred Schnittke
    -studied in Vienna 1946-1948.

    -1958: wrote an oratorio called Nagasaki

    -1962-1984: wrote film scores.

    • -1985: Gorabchev becomes leader of USSR: cultural climate
    • began to thaw.
  37. Polystylism
    Use of multiple techniques and styles in a piece of music.
  38. Louis Andriessen
    Main influence is the rock of the late 60’s.



    Move away from ‘traditional’ instrumentation



    Anti-establishment/anarchist politically


    Minimalist.
  39. De Staat
    • -not strictly diatonic, but chromatic; therefore much more
    • dissonant
  40. Terry Riley
    • Went to Darmstadt in 1962. Minimalist composer. Esperiments in Europe in the 1960's with The Gift.
    • Electronic music scene was very influential.
  41. In C
    By Terry Riley.

    In C consists of 53 short, numbered musical phrases, lasting from half a beat to 32 beats; each phrase may be repeated an arbitrary number of times. Each musician has control over which phrase he or she plays: players are encouraged to play the phrases starting at different times, even if they are playing the same phrase.
  42. Steve Reich
    • -
    • in Electronic music studio developed technique
    • called “phasing”.

    • -
    • Tape piece “Come Out” 1966

    • -
    • In addition to an excellent example of phasing
    • technique, highlights the possibility of political, religious, etc. content in
    • combination with minimalist music.

    • -
    • Late 60’s early 70’s – acoustic works for like
    • instruments.
  43. Piano Phase
    By Reich.

    • Piano Phase 1967 –
    • for two pianos

    -Process piece
  44. John Adams
    • “looping” instead of phasing – principal technique in pure
    • minimalist phase

    1987 – Nixon in China



    postminimalism

    early works show “process music” a la Reich/Riley

    • in the 1980’s – progresses beyond this, and incorporates
    • minimalist techniques as a texture instead of a pure musical sound.

    • Incorporation of quotations, ironic commentary, and other
    • elements that align it wish postmodernism.

    Holy minimalism
  45. Arvo Part
    Estonian composer.

    • Moved through neoclassical and pure serial techniques in the
    • 50’s and 60’s/

    In 1976 he codified a technique called

    In 1976 he codified a technique called “tintinnabulation”

    -two part texture

    -one part palying scalar diatonic passages

    -other part arpeggiating the tonic triad
  46. Cantus in memormiam
    Benjamin Britten
    By Arvo Part.


    • Cantus in memormiam
    • Benjamin Britten – 1976 premiered in 1980
  47. Minimalism
    -arose in the 1960’s.

    -extremely connected to visual arts.

    • -reaction against the extreme ‘excesses’ of Expressionism or
    • Total Serialism.

    • -paring down of raw materials used in the creation of
    • artwork.

    -Parrallel developments in Europe and America.
  48. Process music
    -music that arises from a process, and more specifically, music that makes that process audible to the listener. This process involves a specific system of choosing and arranging notes through pitch and time, and often involves a long term change with a limited amount of musical material.
  49. Open form
    Open form is a term sometimes used for mobile or polyvalent musical forms, where the order of movements or sections is indeterminate or left up to the performer.
  50. Phasing
    Two instruments gradually shift out of unison, creating first a slight echo as one instrument plays a little behind the other, then a doubling with each note heard twice, then a complex ringing effect, and eventually coming back through doubling and echo into unison.
  51. Looping
    Tape looping, using an original and looping it over and over on top of another.
  52. Postminimalism
    • JOHN ADAMS
    • in the 1980’s – progresses beyond this, and incorporates
    • minimalist techniques as a texture instead of a pure musical sound.

    • Incorporation of quotations, ironic commentary, and other
    • elements that align it wish postmodernism.

    Holy minimalism
  53. Holy Minimalism
    Minimalist music pertaining to sacred or religious subjects.
  54. Tinntinnabulation
    -two part texture

    -one part palying scalar diatonic passages

    -other part arpeggiating the tonic triad
  55. Gyorgy Ligeti
    • As a student and immediately after in Hungary in the late
    • 40’s and early 50’s writing “socialist realist” works – all choral settings of
    • traditional Hungarian folk tunes.



    Never wrote a ‘serial’ piece

    Left Hungary in 1956



    End up in Cologne, Germany

    • WDR- Stockhausen – began working in Electronic Music studio
    • and attending Darnstadt.



    • In his early electronic pieces, he attempted to mimic speech
    • and made up “sounds” that he connected to make a “make-believe” language.
  56. Micropolyphony
    Micropolyphony

    • -1960’s – correspondence to American minimalism developments
    • and the Fluxus movement.

    -micropolyphony: use of very close identical canons.

    • Likens these procedures to the optical illusions especially
    • those of MC Escher.
  57. Continuum
  58. Aventures
    • Late 70’s – artistic crisis – avant garde, which was
    • originally anti-establishment had become the establishment.
  59. Mode de valeurs et d'intensites (Mode of Durations and Intensities)
    By Messiaen.

    SOUNDS LIKE 12 TONE, ALMOST LITTLE RAIN DROPS FALLING ALL OVER THE PLACE.
  60. Kreuzspiel
    By Stockhausen. LISTEN TO WHAT SOUNDS LIKE A LIGHT HAND DRUM WITH 12 TONE PIANO. SOMETIMES THE DRUM IS VERY AGGRESSIVE.

    BASS CLARINET. OBOE.
  61. Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano
    By John Cage:

    Sounds like a piano that has intensively been modified. Makes percussive sounds as well as piano sounds. Sometimes sounds like a toy.
  62. Six
    • By John Cage:
    • Lot's of Bells, sounds like ancient music. Music that is extremely percussive and rigid. Listen for bells that come out of no where. As well as other sounds that come out of no where.
  63. String Quartet No. 3
    • By Rochberg.
    • Sounds like a pretty string quartet! Nothing 12 tone at all.
  64. Concerto Grosso No. 1
    By Schnittke

    Sounds like crazy psychadelic strings. Lots of dissonance.

    The second movement the Toccatta actually sounds like a dance. It's very fiddle like. Harpsichord is present in the piece.
  65. Choir Concerto
    By Schnittke:

    Very dark, very robust. Very beautiful. Could almost be compared with Eric Whitacre.
  66. Nixon in China
    • By John Adams
    • Very minimalist opera.
    • Lot's of repeated words.
  67. Cantus in memoriam Benjamin Britten
    By Arvo Part.

    Sounds like a beautiful elegy of someone. Very light strings and orchestra. Towards the end it the strings get an intense chordal sound.
  68. Continuum for Harpsichord
    By Ligeti

    Minimalist Harpsichord. Matthew Dirst would be proud. Gets very dissonant.
  69. Aventures
    By Varese. This seriously sounds like a woman is in a hole and keeps falling endlessly. Listen for harpsichord and orchestra going all over the place. Listen for the sound of women in the background.
  70. Trio for Violin, Horn and Piano
    By Ligeti. Listen for the three instrument. It's very random however the piano occasionally has an ostinato pattern. Listen for that pattern.
  71. Visions of a November Spring
    By Macmillan.

    Sounds like strings that become dissonant and aggressive. Listen for aggressive playing. This could be something from a pseudoromantic/psycho movie. Very repetitive motive in one of the violins.

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