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Characterization of lungs:
Role of larynx in sound production
Modulates sound quality
Appearance/location of infraorbital sinus (3)
- Lateral to nasal cavity, Ventrolateral to eye
Species differences seen in avian tracheal cartilages (3):
- Complete rings
- Overlap dorso & ventrolaterally
- Diameter increases caudally
What forms the basis of the syrinx?
What part of the syrinx forms the sound?
Medial and Lateral Tympaniform Membranes
Primary Bronchi include:
Which of the Primary Bronchii gives rise to Secondary Bronchii?
Secondary Bronchi include:
Appearance of parabrinchii (4):
- Freely anastomosing tubes
Spherical/polygonal chambers arising from parabronchi
Spindle shaped structures that perforate and extend from the floor atria
Fine, terminal divisions of infundibula
____ & ____ = gas exchange area, which is located....
- Blood Capillaries & Air Capillaries
- ...in the walls of parabronchii
Five most important features of avian lung:
- Very small
- Non expansible
- Use caution w/ inhalational anesthetics
- Inspiration/Expiration simultaneously
- No Terminal Blind Sacs
Air Sacs (#):
- Cervical (1 or 2)
- Clavicular (1)
- Cranial Thoracic (2)
- Caudal Thoracic (2)
- Abdominal (2)
Cervial AS aerates:
Clavicular AS aerates:
- Pelvic Girdle & mm
Abdominal AS aerates:
- Kidney (Perirenal)
- NO DIVERTICULAE TO LONG BONES OF LIMB
Only the ___ repro organs develop
What structure characterizes a mature follicle
Functions of air sacs (3):
- Body Weight Reduction
- Bellows during ventilation
- Temp Regulation
Five parts of oviduct (Cr-Ca)
- Shell Gland/Uterus
Left Oviduct, Convoluted
- Time: 15 mins
- Primary Function: Engulfs Ovum
- Secretion: Dense ALB
- Time: 3 hr
- Primary Function:
- Secretion: ALB (most)
- Time: 75 mins
- Primary Function: Shell Membranes
- Secretion: 10% ALB
- Time: 20 Hr
- Primary Function: Plumping, Calcareous Shell & Shell Cuticle
- Time: Few Seconds
- Primary Function: Attract/Store Semen
- Secretion: Tubular Glands in Sperm Host Fossulae only
Location of the testes:
The DD terminates in the ___, which opens into the urodeum through the ____
- receptaculum of the DD
- Papilla of the DD
Components of the phallus (3):
- Median Phallic Body
- Lateral Phallic body
- Lymphatic Folds
Cr pole of the epididymis:
What is used to sex birds @ 1 day?
Median Phallic Body
Evertion of ventral lip of coaca @ copulation
Contact btw the everted M cloaca & that of the F
What part of the phallus adds fluid to semen?
Appearance of the avian kidneys (4):
- Dark Brown
3 DIVISIONS of avian kidneys
What vv's enter the Renal Portal system?
- Caudal Mesenteric
- Internal Iliac
What V leaves the Renal Portal System?
Caudal Vena Cava
What is responsible for control of blood flow & diversion of blood to the caudal vena cava
Renal Portal Valve
LN are found in which types of bird?
Lymphoid Tissue found in all birds
- Lymphatic Vessels
- Thymus (young only)
- Cloacal Bursa
- Mural LN
Where are mural LN found?
Walls of lymph vessels
Where are solitary LNs found?
- CT of all organs
- (appear invasive b/c non-encapsulated)
What LN are found in ailimentary tract?
- Aggregated LN
- (Peyer's & Cecal Tonsils)
What forms the lumbosacral enlargement
Rhomboidal Sinus W/ a Gelatinous Glycogen Body
Species differences seen in avian spinal cord (2):
- Same length as neural canal
- Nerves emerge laterally
Very consipuous lobes seen within the brian
What would affect a bird prey's ability to discriminate btw objects?
Removal of Forebrain
What activities are dependent of cerebral cortex (5)?
- Initiation of movements
- Conditioned Reflexes
- Autonomic Activities