immuno 24-25 AI.txt

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Author:
kepling
ID:
84023
Filename:
immuno 24-25 AI.txt
Updated:
2011-05-05 18:41:45
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immuno AI
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immuno 24-25 AI
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  1. Tolerance?
    inactivation of lymphocyte binding antigen b/c of the antigen
  2. How is tolerance caused?
    • Centrally: inactive negative selection
    • Peripherally: T/B cell negatives mature, bind MHC factor = Treg = secrete Inhibitory factors TNF-B and IL-10
  3. 4 tolerance inhibitors:
    • infection
    • inflammation
    • genetics
    • hormones
  4. Molecular mimicry?
    • microbes that are similar to self antigens
    • Bind and activate Self-T/B cells
    • Autoimmunity created
  5. Superantigens?
    • overstimulation due to infection
    • Too many activated T-cells that the Treg cells cannot inhibit
  6. What causes Kawasaki disease?
    Superantigen
  7. Abnormal self-antigen presentation from infection?
    • infection = inflammation
    • inflammation = lymphocytes/APC cells
    • APC cells present B7 to CD28 to active autoreactive Tcells
    • Autoimmunity formed
  8. Abnormal self-antigen from non-APC cells?
    • Example: B-panreatic cells
    • Start to produce MHCI and MHCII
    • MHC = self antigen presentation to T-cell
    • Autoimmunity
  9. Function of Penicillin induced hemolytic anemia?
    • Hapten binds to cell
    • cell becomes unaffected by tolerance from Treg cells
    • Activated cells become autoimmunity cells
  10. Sequestered antigens?
    • Some lymphocytes are hidden from negative selection and tolerance mechanisms
    • upon damage, these can be released and cause autoimmunity
  11. 3 examples of sequestered antigens?
    • Vasectomy: Anti-sperm
    • ocular trauma: Anti-Uveitis
    • CNS: Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  12. Cryptic epitopes?
    • Epitopes hidden from immune system
    • epitopes released upon damage
    • bind to antibodies and cause autoimmunity binding of other lymphocytes
  13. Cryptic epitope example?
    • Rheumatoid factor (Rh)
    • IgM binds to Fc region of epitope affecte IgG and causes phagocytosis of RBCs
  14. Polyclonal lymphocyte activation?
    • Microbes that are non-specific
    • Bind and cause B-cells to produce autoantibodies
    • Attack T, B cells
    • create rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies
  15. Genetic Susceptibility: Which MHC allele is famous for self-antigen presentation?
    MHCII
  16. function of estrogen on autoimmune diseases?
    Increases chances
  17. Three genetic cytokines that can increase Autoimmune diseases?
    • defective CTLA-4
    • Fas/FasL
    • IL-2/IL-2R

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