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Microorganisms are the primary cause of foodborne illness. Identify them by type (5).
Define a Foodborne illness...
... an infection or illness carried or transmitted to people by food containing harmful substances.
What are the 3 types of foodborne illnesses?
- Toxin-mediated infections.
Foodborne Infection; give two examples from each of:
Bacteria; Salmonella, Listeria.
Virus; Hepatitis A, norovirus.
Parasite; Trichinella, anisakis.
Foodborne Intoxication; name two bacteria those waste products induce intoxication.
Foodborne Intoxication are also naturally found in 4 groups, what are they?
Foodborne Intoxication; list two seafood toxins.
Foodborne Intoxication; list 4 chemical toxin types.
Food Intoxication; name 2 common toxic chemicals and where they are often found.
Copper and Lead.
Copper is found in unlined cooking utensils, water supply lines.
Lead is no longer used but is still found in old establishments, and utensils marked as 'Decorative', 'Decorative use only' and 'Not food safe'.
Toxin-Mediated Infections are the result of what?
Eating food containing harmful microorganisms, or trace amounts of toxic metals.
Toxin-Mediated Infections can also be caused by which two bacteria?
Shigella and E. Coli (shiga toxin producing strains.) Viruses and parasites DO NOT cause toxin-mediated infection.
What constitutes an 'Outbreak'?
Two or more cases of a similar illness.
Define 'Incubation Period'
... the amount of time it takes for the symptoms of a foodborne illness to appear after contanimated food is consumed.
What is the average Incubation Period?
4 - 24 hours.
What are the average symptoms of foodborne illness?
diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.
What is a food Hazard?
Anything that can cause an unacceptable risk by illness or injury to a consumer.
What are the 3 food Hazard categories?
Of the 3 food Hazards, which one is the most common?
Is a food Hazard a Contamination?
No, but they are similar. Contamination is the presence of harmful substances or organisms in food. Hazard is the risk of such.
Describe a biological food Hazard, and give an example.
bacteria, parasites, virus, fungi, toxins.
Example - raw fish infected with parasites that are not visible to the eye.
Example - moldy fruits.
Describe a chemical food Hazard, and give an example.
pesticides, food additives, cleansing agents, toxic metals.
Example - soft drinks become contaminated by copper leaking from a broken soda valve.
Example - overspray from pesticide treatment.
Describe a physical food Hazard, and give an example.
Objects not normally found or consumed with food.
Example - broken glass.
Example - bandaids.
Example - staple.
What are Bacteria?
Living microorganisms made up of a single cell.
Where are Bacteria found?
- Every surface, on the human body, in the air, in water, in soil, on tools, etc..
What are Pathogens?
Disease causing Bacteria. (Many Bacteria are 'good' bacteria and are necessary for human health).
What are Bacterial Toxins?
The wase product released by harmful bacteria.
How do Bacteria reproduce?
By cell division. 1 cell becomes 2, 2 becomes 4, 4 becomes 8, 8 becomes 16, and so on (this is called binary fission).
How long could it take for one Bacteria cell to reproduce and become billions of cells?
In ideal conditions; 10-12 hours.
What are the 4 phases of Bacteria growth?
- Lag - adjusting to a new environment.
- Growth - cells double at a constant rate.
- Stationary - cells compete for resources, some die.
- Death - more cells die than are produced.
Are Bacteria Forms, the same as Phases?
- Forms are either the active state or the dormant state.
- Phases describe the growth stages of bacteria; lag, growth, stationary and death.
What are the two Bacteria Forms?
Vegative - bacteria is active in any of the 4 phases. Easily killed by cooking/freezing to established temperatures.
Spore - bacteria is inactive, hibernating within a thick protective wall, but healthy and ready for growth as soon as conditions become ideal. Extremely difficult to kill with cooking or freezing.
Name 2 common Bacteria, where they can be found, how they can be passed.
- Samlonella and Staphyloccus aureus.
- Found; chicken salad, gravies, eggs, puddings, meats, poultry.
- Passed; cross-contamination, improper handwashing, leaving foods at room temperature.
Name 2 common Bacteria SPORES, where they can be found, how they can be passed.
- Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus.
- Found; foods from soil like potatoes, rice.
- Passed; improper cooling/heating, reheating on steam tables, large batch cooling/heating.
What are the 6 factors that affect Bacterial growth?
- F - food
- A - acidity
- T - time
- T - temperature
- O - oxygen
- M - moisture
What types of foods do Bacteria prefer to grow in?
- High-protein (meat, poultry, seafood, dairy)
- Heat Treated Plant Origin (pasta, beans)
Bacteria prefer a pH (acid) range of what?
- 4.6 and 7.0
- Vinegar and citrus reduce the pH below 4.6 and make it difficult for Bacteria to grow.
How does Time effect Bacteria?
- In ideal conditions, Bacteria can reproduce every 10-30 minutes.
- Within 4 hours there can be over 1 million bacteria cells.
- By 10 hours, there can be over 1 billion.
How does Temperature effect Bacteria?
Bacteria love 41 - 135 F, it's the DANGER ZONE.
How does Oxygen effect Bacteria? List the 3 Types of Bacteria and an example.
Oxygen levels determine which
Bacteria are likely to be found. (Bacteria are found everywhere.)
- Oxygen present - Aerobic Bacteria, eg Listeria monocytogenes.
- Oxygen not present - ANaerobic Bacteria, eg Clostridium botulinum.
- Facultative Bacteria grow with or without oxygen, eg Salmonella.
How does Moisture effect Bacteria?
Bacteria need water for VEGATITIVE states (growing). Without water available, Bacteria are found as SPORES (dormant).
How does a Food Service Manager control BACTERIAL growth?
By using TIME and TEMPERATURE.
Name 3 common foodborne illnesses, one source, one method of spreading, one method of prevention.
Listeriosis - Unpasteurized dairy, not washing hands properly, proper refrigeration temperatures and times.
Staph - People (skin, hair, sneezing, coughing), poor hygiene, proper hand washing. Note: COOKING WILL NOT KILL STAPH.
Cholera - Fish and shellfish, contamination by human waste (in water of origin or not hand washing), proper hand washing.
Norovirus is thought to be the leading foodborne illness; list 4 things about it.
- It is from the Human Intestinal tract.
- People pass it along by hands contaminated with feces (poo).
- It can be prevented by washing hands properly after using the toilet.
- It is found on fish and shellfish from waters that have been contanimated with Human Waste.
- Proper hand washing prevents spreading.
- Proper heating/cooling prevents spreading.
- Use CERTIFIED shellfish.
- Sick People can pass Norovirus even after 3 days of feeling better.
How is a Virus different from a Bacteria?
- Viruses need a Host to reproduce (they invade the cells of a living human or animal, and use the host cell's resources).
- Bacteria reproduce by cell division and are self supporting.
- Viruses do not reproduce or grow on food, but they are spread by food (sneezing/coughing).
What is a Parasite?
It is a living organism (multi celled) that feeds within or from another life form. They must have a living host.
Name 2 Parasites.
- Trichinosis (from undercooked pork and wild meats).
- Anisakisis Worm (from undercooked or unfrozen meats and fish).
What are Fungi and where are they found?
- Mushrooms, molds and yeasts.
- Found in soil, air, water, plants and some foods such as blue cheese.
Are all Fungi dangerous?
- No, some are useful, such as those cultured molds in cheese, or yoghurts.
- HOWEVER, mushrooms can be highly toxic and should only be sourced from approved venders. DO NOT accept wild mushrooms.
What are Molds and are they different?
- Molds are a subset of fungi, but less complex (like moss is a plant but less complex than a tree).
- Generally fungi are large enough to be seen and used, where as molds are only noticed when colonies reach large sizes (fuzzy or slimy on foods).
- We can dice and slice a mushroom (fungi), but serve a whole colony of mold as yoghurt.
What are Yeasts and where are they found?
- Yeasts are spoilage organisms.
- They may be pink or blue in color.
- They may appear slimy.
- They grow well in acidic foods like jams, sauerkraut.
- We need yeasts for fermenting beer, wine, and for rising breads.
Biological and Seafood Toxins are produced by pathogens in Plants or Animals. Give an example for both...
Plant toxin - Rhubarb leaves.
Animal toxin - Swordfish (Scombroid poisoning.
Chemical Hazards, list 3 examples and where they are commonly found.
Pesticides - found in food establishments to control bugs.
Additives - Sulfites are added to keep foods fresh longer (many people are allergic to sulfites), they are not allowed to be used on fresh fruits and vegetables for raw consumption.
Toxic Metals - Copper in water supply lines, Cadmium in refrigerator shelves.
Pesticides are a Chemical Hazard, list 3 risk reducers.
- Obtain only from approved sources.
- Wash all fruits and vegetables well.
- All pesticides must be labeled, in original containers and stored separately from food and food contact items.
- Use only Pesticides approved for use in food establishments.
- Follow the manufactures application instructions exactly.
- Use a certified pesticide applicator only.
Additives can be Chemical Hazards, name 1 and list the conditions of use.
- Sulfites (many people are allergic to sulfites)
- Sulfites are added to fruits and vegetables to preserve freshness.
- Sulfites must be identified and labeled.
- A sign should be posted listing the foods containing any sulfites.
- Menu items should be identified as containing sulfites.
- Applying sulfites to foods that will be consumed raw is illegal.
Toxic Metals are Chemical Hazards, list 2 examples and where they are commonly found.
Copper - unlined pots, soda water lines.
Lead - old plumbing, glazes on 'decorative use only' items.
Zinc - galvanized containers (acidic food like juices dissolve the ions and become poisonous).
Brass - contains zinc.
Cadmium - refrigerator shelves are often cadmium lined, direct food contact can cause toxic effects.
Chemical Hazards - two common cleaning chemicals must never be combined, which two and why?
Added together they create Chlorine GAS which is poisonious.
What is the primary source of Physical Hazards?
List 3 Physical Hazards
- broken glass
- equipment pieces
- false fingernails
- band aids
- fish scales
What is the DANGER ZONE?
Temperature range of 41f - 135f.
It is the range that pathogens grow.
What is TCS?
Time and Temperature Control for Safety
What are the 4 characteristics of PHF?
Potentially Hazardous Foods
- High protein
- Moisture availability
- Neutral chemical content
- Slightly ACIDIC
List 5 examples of PHF
Potentially Hazardous Foods
- Milk and Milk products
- Raw sprouts and seeds
- Shell eggs
- Meat; beef, pork, lamb
- Shellfish and Crustacea
- Melons, CUT
- Potatoes, baked or boiled
- Cooked rice
- Cooked beans
- Garlic and Oil mixes
- Heat Treated plant food
Are there non-PHF? If so, what are they?
non-Potentially Hazardous Foods
- Pasteurized eggs (treated to destroy all Salmonella).
- Air cooled Hard Boiled Eggs with Shell INTACT.
- Food designated as non PHF.
- Food in an unopened hermetically sealed container that has been commercially processed.
- Food that has been assessed with labratory evidence.
- Any food that does not support microorganisms.