Card Set Information
What are the 3 effects of Interferon Alpha, Beta and Gamma have?
1. Interferon Alpha and Beta--stop viral protein synthesis via upregulating ribonuclease
2. Interferon gamma--upregulation of MHC I and II and increased Antigen presentation
3. Activates NK cells to kill virus infected cells
What are the different types of MHC class I?
What are the different types of MHC class II?
Thymus is embryologically derived from?
3rd branchial arch
Transmembrane and secreted IgM are both derived from the same mRNA thru what process?
What is the enzyme involved in somatic hypermutation, gene conversion and class switching?
activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID)
Which MHC receptor has the beta 2 microglobulin?
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency Type I is caused by what?
deficiency of CD18 integrin on leukocyte membrane
Leukocyte adhesion Deficiency Type II is caused by a defect in what?
Fucosyl transferase---which synthesizes a ligand for a selectin molecule
Chediak-Higashi syndrome is caused by a defect in what?
defect in microtubular function
Chronic Granulomatous Disease is caused by what?
deficiency of NADPH
Myeloperoxidase deficiency is caused by what?
Gram positive or negative bacteria have LPS on their surface?
Toll Like receptors (TLR) are located where in the cell?
- cell membrane
Signaling thru TLR or NOD receptors induces the expression of what?
Deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor leads to what condition?
Membrane attack complex defends against what type of bacteria?
C5B, C6,C7,C8,C9 make up what?
membrane attack complex
What are the derivates of common lymphoid progenitor?
Deficiency of C5-C8 causes what?
Deficiency of DAF (Decay-accelelrating factor) leads to what?
paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
An increased susceptibility to Type III hypersensitive rxn's and recurrent pyogenic sinus and respiratory tract infection are due to a deficiency of what complement factor?
C1 thru C4 are involved in what ?
C3b is involved in what?
opsonization of bacteria
C3a and C5a are involved in what?
anaphylaxis and neutrophil chemotaxis
What interleukin induces the liver to express acute phase proteins?
Which portion of the Antibody molecule, Fab or Fc determines the isotype?
Which part of the antibody determines the idotype?
To which part of the antibody does the complement bind to?
Which part of the antibody is the amino terminal?
What are the 3 functions of antibodies?
Antibody diversity is generated in 4 ways, what are they?
1. Random recombination of VJ (light chain) and VDJ (heavy chain)
2. Random combination of heavy and light chains
3. Somatic hypermutation after Ag stimulation
4. Addition of nucleotides DNA during recombination by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase
B cell is able to detect complement via CD21
Co receptor on a B cell recognizes what?
Cyclosporin is an inhibitor of what?
Protein tyrosine kinases and other signalling molecules are located in what portion of the lipid membrane?
In an immunological synapse, which part, the inner or the outer portion functions to anchor the Antigen presenting cell to the T cell?
The outer portion via LFA-1 (integrin)
What ion is often used to amplify the original signal?
Upon binding of the antigen, what part of the T or BCR gets phosphorylated?
Signal # 2 for B cell is what?
Binding of CD 40 from a T helper cell
Co receptors like CD 19, 20, 21 perform what function on a B cell??
Complement component binding
MAPK kinase cascade activates what in response to signals?
ITIM attract ____________while ITAM attract ____________?
ITIM attract protein tyrosine Phosphatase
ITAM attract protein tyrosine kinases
What type of receptors activate NFkappaB?
Toll like receptors
Deficiency of RAG1/2 causes what syndrome?
What does H. Pylori release that neutralizes the acidic environment in the stomach?
ureaase---breaks down urea to NH4
What are the 2 forms of Leprosy?
What enzymes are used for VDJ recombination?
Omenn Syndrome is caused by what?
RAG1/2 missense mutation
Bruton's agammaglobulemia is caused by a deficiency of what?
BTK (Tyrosine kinase)
Hyper IgM is caused by a deficiency of what?
CD40L on a Helper T cell----> impaired class swithcing
IgG, IgM, IgA are all different what?
What determines the different idiotypes?
antigenic binding site
What determines the different isotypes?
What causes Ataxia-telangiectasia?
DNA enzyme repair defect
What is the triad of Ataxia-telangiectasia?
B class switching requires two signals, what are they?
Signal 1--IL-4, IL-5, IL-6
Signal CD40L from a Th cell
What are the 3 function of antibodies?
Complement activation---via IgG and IgM
To what toxins are antibodies given to patients? (Passive immunity)
Membrane attack complex is activated by what?
IgG and IgM
molecules on the surface of microbes
What happens in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome?
progressive deletion of T and B cells
What 2 antibodies are common in Hashimotos Thyroditis?
Thyroid peroxidase enzyme
What is amyloidosis?
deposition of protein in tissues
A condition in which fragments of immunoglobulins are deposited in the tissues is called?
Presence of a large amount of protein in plasma cells is called?
What are the two most important action of the innate immune system?
inflammation--recruitment of leukocytes
anti-viral response--via dendritic and NK cells
What are the Innate immunity receptors that recognize molecular patterns of microbes?
TLRs and NLRs activate what common transcription factor?
What are defensis?
anti-microbial molecules produced by the epithelial cells of the skin, respiratory and digestive tracts
What 3 factors trigger activation of the complement system?
1. Antigen-antibody complex
2. Microbial surface antigens
3. Mannose binding lectin
What are the 2 ways of activating complement system in the innate immunity?
1-Mannose binding lectin
2- Microbial surface markers/antigens
What are the 2 divisions of the adaptive immunity?
The enzyme which mediates the rearrangement of antigen receptor genes in developing lymphocytes is called?
RAG 1 and 2
What can be used as a T cell marker?
How can lymphoid tumors be identified?
by analyzing antigen receptor gene rearrangements
Gamma and Sigma T cells which are specialized T cells are found where in the body?
What is the antigen binding component of the B cell receptor?
IgM and IgD antibodies
What receptor on the B cell is used by the Epstein Barr Virus for infection?
What is the complement receptor on the B cells?
What are the two types of dendritic cells?
Follicular Dendritic cells
Interdigitating dendritic cells
Follicular dendritic cells are located in what two locations?
Follicular dendritic cells in the spleen and L.node have what type of receptor?
Fc receptor is for what two entities?
Balance of what two signals determines whether a NK cell with kill a cell?
activating and inhibitory signals
What are the inhibitory cell signals that prevent NK cells from killing normal healthy cells?
Pathogens that penetrate the epithelium end up in lymph nodes how?
Dendritic cells (langherans) cells ingest them and take them to l. nodes
Th1 cells play a role in defense against what microbes?
Th2 cells play a role in defense against what ?
Which Th cell is implicated in allergy?
Th17 cells play a role in defense against what microbes?
extracellular bacteria and fungi
Which interleukin stimulates the proliferation of T cells?
What molecules on a T helper cell activates macrophages and stimulates class switch on B cells?
Which Ig is transported across the placental barrier?
What receptor on the phagocytes binds to antibodies?
Fc receptor--Fc for the Fc region of the antibody molecule
Which Types of Hypersensitivity disorders are mediated by antibodies?
Types I thru III
Anti-Glutamate decarboxylase antibodies present in what disorder?
Antihistone antibodies present in what disorder?
Drug induced SLE
Anti-smooth muscle in what disorder?
Synovia cysts are associated with what disorder?
Anti-IgG antibodies are present in what disorder?
What are epitheloid cells?
epithelium like transformed macrophages
What is a granuloma?
aggregation of Epithelioid cells surrounded by lymphocytes
What are the specific lysosomal enzymes?
What are the azurophilic enzymes?
non specific collagenase
Which organism causes Lyme disease?
c-ANCA antibodies found in what condition?
p-ANCA in what disorder?
3 drugs for Gout?
Allopurinol--xanthine oxidase inhibitor
Propenecid--inhibits uric acid reabsorption in PCT and inhibits secretion of penacillin
Self-reactive T cells that become nonreactive without co-stimulatory molecules are called?
Stem cells express what marker?
When does CD19 become expressed on the developing B cell?
After heavy chain has been rearranged
The heavy chain is rearranged by which stage in the developing B cell?
Large Pre-B cell
The light chain is rearranged by which stage in the developing B cell?
Immature B cell
By which stage in the developing B cell is the intracellular IgM expressed?
Large Pre-B cell
What are Reed-Sternberg cells?
B cells without specific cell markers
Positive selection of T cells occurs where in the thymus?
Negative selection of T cells in the thymus occurs where?
How is positive and negative selection of T cells different in the thymus?
Positive selection---T cells that recognize self antigen are selected for
Negative selection--T cells that recognize self antigens are selected against
B cells are found in what area of the spleen?
white pulp white for Bleach....B cells
T cells are found in what area of the spleen?
A Superantigen binds to a site other than Ag binding site and elicits what type of syndrome?
Toxic shock syndrome
Clostridium Difficile causes diarhea usually secondary to an exposure to what agent?
antibiotics --clindamyocin or ampicillin
Polysaccharides or proteins are sufficient to activate B cells?
Abnormal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow leads to what kind of cancer?
What enzyme induces somatic hypermutation, gene conversion and isotype switch?
Hyperacute organ rejection is mediated by what?
Acute, GVHD and chronic organ rejection is mediated by what?
What two superantigens cause toxis shock syndrome?
What activates macrophages?
What induces the Truncus Arteriousus to become ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk?
Neural crest cell migration
Humoral rejection of cell mediated rejection is characterized by vasculitis?
Humoral or cell mediated rejection is characterized by monocyte infiltration?
cell mediated rejection
Primary immunodeficiencies are caused by what?
Secondary immunodeficiencies are caused ?
Neutrophilia, Omphalitis and recurrent bacterial infections are indicative of what?
Leukocyte deficiency type I
Integrin CD18 defect beta chain
What kinds of organisms cause recurrent infections in a person with Chronic Granulomatous Disease?
Infections with catalase positive organisms occur in people with what disease?
Chronic Granulomatous disease
Hyper Ig-E or Job syndrome is caused by what?
deficient production of IFN-gamma from Th cell
What Immunoglobulin is overproduced in Job syndrome?
Hyper IgM syndrome is caused by what?
deficient CD40 on Th cell
failed class switching
What is the only B cell immunodeficiency where there is no production of B cells?
What is the etiology of rheumatic heart disease?
antibodies produced to group A streptococcus cross react with heart
What is the fluorescent pattern of glomeruli in good pasture?
What is the flourescent pattern of staining of glomeruli in SLE or Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis?
Bumpy Lumpy--interrupted vs ribbon like in good pasture
Cyclophosphamide and isofamide function how?
covalently linking DNA at guanine N-7
What are the VDRL false positives?
viruses (mono, hepatitis0
Lupus and Leprosy
What CD markers are present on Reed-Sternberg cells?
What condition is accompanied by secondary antiphospholipid syndrome?
Systemic Lupus Erythromatouses
Libman-Sacks endocarditis is a condition caused by what disorder?
Systemic Lupus Erythromatosus
Which syndrome is characterized by Xeropthalmia, Xerostomia and arthritis along with destruction of lacrimal and salivary glands?
What is the only lipid that is an antigen?
What is a hapten?
too small to start an immune response
How does penicillin elicit an immune response/?
penicillin is a hapten and binds to host proteins at which point is taken up by a B cell which is activated to produce antibodies by T helper 2 cells
What is the function of an adjuvant?
enhances immunogenicity of the antigen
The TLRs located in the endosomes of the cells tend to detect what kind of foreign antigens?
What is the best way of introducing antigens to induce immunity?
subcutaneous because the antigen is take up by the Langerhan cells which migrates to the Lymph node and activatees T cells
How are viruses attenuated?
they are grown and selected for in non-human cells?
Phosphatases are found where
Kinases are found where?
What is the function of Th17?
Defect in AIRE causes what?
APECED--Autoimmune polyendcrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy
Defect in FAS causes what?
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
What antigen is highly expressed in the anti-microsomal antigen in Hashimotos?
What is the mutated protein involved in the pathogenesis of Familial Mediterranean Fever?
In all of the autoinflammatory conditions what protein is mutated?
pyrin or cryopyrin
Staphylocci cold absecesses and eczema with High IgE levels is indicative of what condition?
Jobs, or Hyper IgE syndrome
What is responsible for the bone resorption in RA?
MMP --metaloproteinases secreted by fibroblasts activated by cytokines
What is the only known environmental/behavioral trigger of RA?
What condition produces sausage fingers?
How is RA treated?
Cant see, cant pee, cant climb describes what condition?
Reactive arthritis---Reiter's syndrome
acquired post GI or chlamydia infection
Large vessels vasculitides have what pahological morphology?
Medium vessel vasculitides have what patthological morphology?
they are either immune complex fibrinoid inflammation or antibody mediated
What does ANCA stand for?
antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
How does Large vessels vasculitis present typically?
loss of pulse
How does medium vessel vasculitis present typically?
How does small vessel vasculitis present typically?
Drug allergic reactions are what type of hypersensitivity?
c-ANCA antibodies are produced against what protein?
p-ANCA antibodies are produced against what protein?
p- ANCA and c-ANCA antibodies bind to proteins found in what 3 types of cells?
What vasculitis is not associated with ANCA?
Hemorrhagic mediastinitis is associated with what bacterial infection?
Reynolds system is associated with what vasculitis?
Which vasculitis has antigen antibody complexes of Hep B?
What are 2 autoimmune disorders that affect the pulmonary and renal systems?
What is the difference between Wegener's granulomatosis and Polyangitis?
What is the vasculitis that affects children?
What malignancy is associated with cryglobuleniemai?
What cells amplify the response in SLE?
The immune complexes deposit where in the kidney in a SLE pt?
between endothelium and basement membrane
What antibody is more specific for SLE?
C1q and anti-dsDNA, Anti-SMith
Cell mediated granulomas are responsible for crohn disease or ulcerative colitis?
Hypersensitivity is responsible for crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis?
Autoreactive T cells in the lamina propria cause what condition?
Inflammatory bowel disease
Which of the IBD involves the colon only
What is the gene mutated in Crohn's disease?
Increased size of the crypts is characteristic of what condition?
Celiac sprue disease
Dermatatic Herpetiforms is associated with what disease?
Whats deposited in the dermis in Dermatatic Herpetiforms?
BLS-Bare lymphocyte syndrome is due to deficiency of what MHC?
Immunoelectrophoresis is used to demonstrate what imuunodeficiency?
What do coreceptors on B cells bind?
BTK signalling deficiency prevents the the B cell from acquiring what?
Pre-B cell receptor
Wiskot-Aldrich Syndrome results in defective what?
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome results from what?
absent FAS killing