widely held beliefs about what is considered appropriate for males and females
how gender stereotypes are reflected in our behavior
perception of ourselves as relatively masculine/feminine
how we associate objects, roles, or trats with one sex in ways that conform two stereotypes
example of instrumental traits
competence, assertiveness, rational (male)
example of expressive traits
sensitive, warm, caring (female)
by age _____ kids have gender-related preferences for games and toys
by age _____, kids can label themselves and others as "boy" or "girl"
by _______, kids associate gender with different clothes, tools, objects, colors, careers.
________ have inflexible gender rules that override other relevant information
by age _____, activities and occupations are strongly stereotyped.
Children gradually learn that gender stereotypes are ____.
Own-sex favoritism is evenident in ______ grades, but later they can identify positive and negative stereotypes for both genders.
Elementary school children know which ______ are "masculine" and "feminine" this is seen cross-culturally.
In middle childhood and adolescence?, females believe males are more ______, even when females' _____ are better. This is seen cross-culturally.
Older children and teenagers realize that people can and do cross gender lines, but they may not _____.
approve of it.
Example of the influence of sex hormones on behavior?
female rats given testosterone pushed baby away and didn't feed them
Children cross-culturally prefer same-sex playmates until _____ at which time interest in the opposite sex seems "activated."
Hormone levels are linked to _____ styles, and children select playmates who are compatible with them.
By age ____, girls and boys exhibit differences in play, including play preferences and play styles.
boys are rougher
Why do children reared as the opposite sex typically experience a lot of developmental problems and confusion?
biology sometimes "trumps" their environment.
With ultrasound technology, parents develop different perceptions and expectations of girls vs boys when?
in the womb
Adults rate newborns differently based on gender even when they are ____
Parents create different _________ for boys and girls.
Parents use different ______ and _____ strategies based on gender.
parenting and discipline
Parents ____ gender-appropriate activities, preferences, and personality traits.
In middle childhood, parents demand more ______ from boys.
In middle childhood, parents _____ daughters more than sons.
In middle childhood, parents focus more on ______ with boys.
In middle childhood, parents focus more on _____ with girls.
In middle childhood, parents rate girls as better in ______ subjects.
IN middle childhood, parents rate boys as better in _______.
In middle childhood, parents give more _____ to boys.
In middle childhood, parents assign ______ chores based on gender.
In early and middle childhood, teachers interrupt ____ more.
In early and middle childhood, teachers _____ children by gender.
In early and middle childhood, teachers reinforce ______ behaviors in both gender.
In early and middle childhood, teachers praise boys more for _____.
In early and middle childhood, teachers praise girls more for ______.
Boys with older sisters display _______ "masculine" behaviors.
Boys with older brothers display _______ "masculine" behaviors.
Because young children typically play with same-sex peers, what are they more likely to demonstrate?
Where do children view far more gender-typed models?
at home, school, and on tv
Gender stereotypes are especially prevalent in.....
cartoons, videogames, commercials
Children who are exposed to non-gender-typed models are less likely to......
Gender segregation and typing exist in all _____, but to differeing degrees.
_____ and ______ American girls appear to be more assertive and independent in their social interactions than Caucasian girls.
African and Hispanic
Children in ______ societies may feel less pressure to maintain same-sex frienships than children in individualist cultures.
possessing both masculine and feminine traits
behaviors come 1st, then self-perception
social learning theory
self-perception comes 1st, then behavior
Cognitive developmental theory
understanding that gender does not change even if appearance/behaviors change
What are Kohlberg's stages of Gender Constancy?
labels self and others as girl or boy, but believes a girl could become a daddy and a boy could grow up to be a mommy (early preschool years)
begins to grasp the stability of sex, but still believes changing appearance changes one's sex (later preschool years)
understands one's sex is based on biology and is permanent (age 6 or 7); may correspond with the development of conservation (Piaget)
Between ____ and _____ grades, boys exhibit strengthened identification with "masculine" roles, while girls exhibit weakened identification with "feminine" roles (and are more androgynous).
3rd and 6th
_____ are more likely to exhibit cross-gender behaviors and interests, and more likely to consider future careers that are not gender-typed.
Children who feel dissatisfied with their gender or do not feel they "fit in" with their gender exhibit ______ in self-esteem, and if they feel intense pressure to fit in this may cause _____ problems.
increased gender stereotyping of atitudes & behaviors, and movemonet toward more traditional gender identity.
Why does gender intensification occur?
as a result of biological, social, and cognitive factors.
When does gender intensification decrease?
as the teen moves toward establishing his or her identity
Why does gender intensification decrease in teens?
probably because they become less concerned with others' opinions
an information-processing approach that explains how environmental and cognitive factors combine to create gender roles.