Psyc final Ch. 14

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Psyc final Ch. 14
2011-05-11 19:33:41

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  1. How do families serve society?
    • Reproduction
    • Economic Services
    • Social Order
    • Socialization
    • Emotional Support
  2. a view of the family as a complex set of interacting relationships influenced by the larger social conflict
    Social systems perspective
  3. The study of "families" has evolved from one emphasizing the mother-child relationship in a unidirectional way (mother to child) to what?
    one that assumes bidirectional influences with multiple persons
  4. Influences on child development are....
    bidirectional and constantly changing
  5. Important contributions of external social networks:
    provide acceptance, information, parenting models, and direct assistance.
  6. The contributions of external social networks results in:
    less stress and fewer child behavior problems
  7. The Parenting Styles identified by Baumrind:
    • Authoritarian Parents
    • Authoritative Parents
    • Permissive Parents
    • Uninvolved Parents
  8. this type of parent is very strict, punshiment oriented, little/no rewards for good behavior, epect unquestioned obediance, lots of rules often unreasonable
    Authoritarian Parents
  9. these types of parents combine reasonable rules, standards, and consequences with warmth, open communiation, and nurturing
    Authoritative Parents
  10. these types of parents have few/no rules, no consequences, may be warm and supportive
    Permissive Parents
  11. These types of parents are detached, withdrawn, absent, neglectful.
    Uninvolved Parents
  12. What are the two dimensions of parenting that Maccoby and Martic identified?
    • Demandingness (High Vs. Low)
    • Responsiveness (High Vs. Low)
  13. Maccoby and Martin's dimension of Demandingness:
    standards, rules, consequences
  14. Maccoby and Martin's dimension of Responsiveness:
    warmth, nurturing
  15. Maccoby and Martin's two dimensions of parenting tyles results in 4 parenting styles:
    • "Authoritative": high, high
    • "Permissive": low, high
    • "Authoritarian: high, low
    • "Uninvolved": low, low
  16. Baumrind identified 3 aspects of Authoritative parents that set them apart from the other styles:
    • unconditional love and acceptance
    • appropriate behavioral control
    • regular involvement
  17. In middle childhood the amount of time children spend with parents dramatically declines. New issues include:
    • responsibility
    • leisure time
    • peer influences
    • academic issues
  18. What do effective parents use?
  19. as the child becomes more mature and responsible, the parent gradually gives them more control and independence.
  20. School aged children seek _____ but still recognize they need their _____ AND claim their parents ar the most important individuals in their lives.
    • independence
    • parents
  21. Adolescence: need for autonomy has both an ______ and ____ component and is closely related to their quest for ______.
    • emotional and behavioral
    • identity
  22. The most adaptive situation: adolescents achieve autonomy in a warm and supportive family leads to:
    higher self-esteem, independence, and stronger work ethic
  23. Authoritative Parents: establish flexible _____, open ______, and an atmosphere of ____ and _____ gradual modification of _____ with increasing age.
    • guidelines
    • discusiion
    • concern and fairness
    • rules
  24. In Conflict-ridden families, autonomy takes on a different importance as it allows the adolescent to .....
  25. The average # of children decreased from ____ to _____ over 40 years.
    3.1 to 1.8
  26. Children in smaller families:
    • more attention and resources
    • better overall health
    • higher education levels
    • better grades
    • fewer behavioral problems
    • parents are more patient and less punitive
  27. ____ is believed to contribute to the observed negative effects of growing up in large families
  28. Pros of having only one child:
    • no sibling rivalry
    • more quality time
    • improved finances
    • more privacy
    • closer relationship
  29. Cons of having only one child:
    • no sibling relationship
    • more pressure to succeed
    • concern about spoiling
    • what if something happens to child
    • concern about aging parents
  30. Adopted children are more likely to exhibit learning or emotional problems, probably because of....
    their histories and/or birth parents
  31. Genetic differences between child and adoptive parents may threaten....
    family harmony
  32. Children adopted LATER (after infancy) are more likely to have:
    • missed out on early bonding experiences
    • experienced stressful situations
  33. The vast majority of adoptive parents report being _____ with their choice and experiences (even those with special needs children.)
  34. Adopted children commonly report unresolved curiosity during their _____ years--- as they search for their ______.
    • adolescence
    • identity
  35. Generally speaking, children raised in gay and lesbian families are equal to children heterosexual families in....
    developmental milestones
  36. Gay and Lesbian parents are more likely than heterosexual parents to use ______ parenting style and promote _____.
    • authoritative
    • healthy ideas about self-worth, equality, etc.
  37. _____% of American children have one parent who has never married. Of these ____ % are mother and ____% are fathers.
    • 10
    • 89
    • 11
  38. The largest demographic group having children and remaining single are _____ women.
    African American
  39. The most common problem amongst single mothers is _____. This is believed to account for the behavior and academic problems more commonly observed in their children.
  40. ____% of marriages end in divorce, and ___% of those involve children.
    • 50
    • 50
  41. At any given time, _____ of children in the US live with only one of their parents.
  42. _____ of divorced parents remarry.
  43. The effects of divorce vary from child to child, largely depending on:
    • Parents Mental Health
    • Child's Traits (age, sex, personality)
    • Social Support
  44. What are the immediate consequences of divorce?
    • lower income
    • possible moving
    • changes in parenting
    • loss of routine
  45. Children may react with distress and anger, which result in _____
    more punitive discipline by the custodial parent
  46. What are the longterm conseqences of divorce?
    • lower self-esteem
    • social, emotional, or behavior problems
    • (adjustment improves within 2 years, for most)
  47. Important factors for long-term outcomes of divorce:
    • contact with both parents
    • parenting styles
    • social support
    • parents who work together
  48. When does divorce have less negative outcomes?
    in severly conflicted homes
  49. What are the most common type of blended families?
  50. Blending families is a ______ transition for most children.
  51. What can make blending families more difficult?
    major changes; gradual transitions with gradual changes are better
  52. Who has the most problems with transition of blending families?
    older children and girls
  53. Remarriage of the _____ is especially disruptive if he/she has custody.
  54. Who struggles more with divorce?
  55. _____% of all mothers in the US are emplyed.
    • 68%
    • 64% in PS years
    • 78% in middle childhood
  56. Generally speaking, children of mothers who enjoy their work and remain committed to parenting show very favorable adjustment, including:
    • higher self-esteem
    • beter grades
    • better family and peer ineractions
    • fewer gender stereotypes
  57. Children of working mothers develop more equalitarian values about _____.
    gender roles
  58. Daughters of working mothers.....
    stay in school longer and perceive women as having more choices
  59. When a mom is working, less favorable outcomes occur when?
    • both parents work OT
    • use poor parenting styles
    • spend less time with kids
    • if dad doesn't support mom working
  60. What are effects of daycare?
    • better social skills
    • higher confidence
    • more aggression
    • more non-compliance
  61. In general, researchers agress that, children below age ____ are not equipped to handle emergiencies and should NEVER be left alone.
  62. In general researchers agree that younger school-aged children who spend more time alone have more _____ problems.
  63. In general, researchers agree that self-care outcomes are greater if the child:
    • has been reared with authoritative parenting
    • is monitored from a distance
    • has regular chores after school (routine)
  64. ________ does the best job of explaining how and why abuse happens.
    social systems perspective
  65. What factors contribute to divorce?
    • parent variables
    • child variables
    • family variables
    • communities
    • cultures
  66. What parent variables contribute to abuse?
    • unreasonable expectations
    • mental illness
    • drug/alcohol abuse
    • very young/uneducated
    • history of abuse
  67. What child variables contribute to abuse?
    any type of disability, illness, or behavior problems
  68. What family variables contribute to abuse?
    • low income
    • overcrowding
    • large family
    • stress
  69. How do communities contribute to abuse?
    few resources/activites for families
  70. How do cultures contribute to abuse?
    some promote the use of force and violence
  71. What cultures is child abuse loest in?
    ones that disapprove of physical punishment (e.g. Sweden)
  72. Consequences of Maltreatment:
    • low self-esteem
    • impaired social skills
    • aggression
    • substance abuse
    • depression/suicide
    • learning problems
    • poor motivation
    • delinquency
    • academic failure
  73. How many victims of abuse repeat the CYCLE?
    about 1/4 to 1/3 become abusers
  74. Preventing Maltreatment:
    • parent training
    • social support
    • income improvements
    • crisis intervention
  75. Problems with intervention for abuse
    • abuse is hard to define/ even harder to provechildren viewed as property
    • courts prefer rehab
    • children often want to stay home