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How do families serve society?
- Economic Services
- Social Order
- Emotional Support
a view of the family as a complex set of interacting relationships influenced by the larger social conflict
Social systems perspective
The study of "families" has evolved from one emphasizing the mother-child relationship in a unidirectional way (mother to child) to what?
one that assumes bidirectional influences with multiple persons
Influences on child development are....
bidirectional and constantly changing
Important contributions of external social networks:
provide acceptance, information, parenting models, and direct assistance.
The contributions of external social networks results in:
less stress and fewer child behavior problems
The Parenting Styles identified by Baumrind:
- Authoritarian Parents
- Authoritative Parents
- Permissive Parents
- Uninvolved Parents
this type of parent is very strict, punshiment oriented, little/no rewards for good behavior, epect unquestioned obediance, lots of rules often unreasonable
these types of parents combine reasonable rules, standards, and consequences with warmth, open communiation, and nurturing
these types of parents have few/no rules, no consequences, may be warm and supportive
These types of parents are detached, withdrawn, absent, neglectful.
What are the two dimensions of parenting that Maccoby and Martic identified?
- Demandingness (High Vs. Low)
- Responsiveness (High Vs. Low)
Maccoby and Martin's dimension of Demandingness:
standards, rules, consequences
Maccoby and Martin's dimension of Responsiveness:
Maccoby and Martin's two dimensions of parenting tyles results in 4 parenting styles:
- "Authoritative": high, high
- "Permissive": low, high
- "Authoritarian: high, low
- "Uninvolved": low, low
Baumrind identified 3 aspects of Authoritative parents that set them apart from the other styles:
- unconditional love and acceptance
- appropriate behavioral control
- regular involvement
In middle childhood the amount of time children spend with parents dramatically declines. New issues include:
- leisure time
- peer influences
- academic issues
What do effective parents use?
as the child becomes more mature and responsible, the parent gradually gives them more control and independence.
School aged children seek _____ but still recognize they need their _____ AND claim their parents ar the most important individuals in their lives.
Adolescence: need for autonomy has both an ______ and ____ component and is closely related to their quest for ______.
- emotional and behavioral
The most adaptive situation: adolescents achieve autonomy in a warm and supportive family leads to:
higher self-esteem, independence, and stronger work ethic
Authoritative Parents: establish flexible _____, open ______, and an atmosphere of ____ and _____ gradual modification of _____ with increasing age.
- concern and fairness
In Conflict-ridden families, autonomy takes on a different importance as it allows the adolescent to .....
The average # of children decreased from ____ to _____ over 40 years.
3.1 to 1.8
Children in smaller families:
- more attention and resources
- better overall health
- higher education levels
- better grades
- fewer behavioral problems
- parents are more patient and less punitive
____ is believed to contribute to the observed negative effects of growing up in large families
Pros of having only one child:
- no sibling rivalry
- more quality time
- improved finances
- more privacy
- closer relationship
Cons of having only one child:
- no sibling relationship
- more pressure to succeed
- concern about spoiling
- what if something happens to child
- concern about aging parents
Adopted children are more likely to exhibit learning or emotional problems, probably because of....
their histories and/or birth parents
Genetic differences between child and adoptive parents may threaten....
Children adopted LATER (after infancy) are more likely to have:
- missed out on early bonding experiences
- experienced stressful situations
The vast majority of adoptive parents report being _____ with their choice and experiences (even those with special needs children.)
Adopted children commonly report unresolved curiosity during their _____ years--- as they search for their ______.
Generally speaking, children raised in gay and lesbian families are equal to children heterosexual families in....
Gay and Lesbian parents are more likely than heterosexual parents to use ______ parenting style and promote _____.
- healthy ideas about self-worth, equality, etc.
_____% of American children have one parent who has never married. Of these ____ % are mother and ____% are fathers.
The largest demographic group having children and remaining single are _____ women.
The most common problem amongst single mothers is _____. This is believed to account for the behavior and academic problems more commonly observed in their children.
____% of marriages end in divorce, and ___% of those involve children.
At any given time, _____ of children in the US live with only one of their parents.
_____ of divorced parents remarry.
The effects of divorce vary from child to child, largely depending on:
- Parents Mental Health
- Child's Traits (age, sex, personality)
- Social Support
What are the immediate consequences of divorce?
- lower income
- possible moving
- changes in parenting
- loss of routine
Children may react with distress and anger, which result in _____
more punitive discipline by the custodial parent
What are the longterm conseqences of divorce?
- lower self-esteem
- social, emotional, or behavior problems
- (adjustment improves within 2 years, for most)
Important factors for long-term outcomes of divorce:
- contact with both parents
- parenting styles
- social support
- parents who work together
When does divorce have less negative outcomes?
in severly conflicted homes
What are the most common type of blended families?
Blending families is a ______ transition for most children.
What can make blending families more difficult?
major changes; gradual transitions with gradual changes are better
Who has the most problems with transition of blending families?
older children and girls
Remarriage of the _____ is especially disruptive if he/she has custody.
Who struggles more with divorce?
_____% of all mothers in the US are emplyed.
- 64% in PS years
- 78% in middle childhood
Generally speaking, children of mothers who enjoy their work and remain committed to parenting show very favorable adjustment, including:
- higher self-esteem
- beter grades
- better family and peer ineractions
- fewer gender stereotypes
Children of working mothers develop more equalitarian values about _____.
Daughters of working mothers.....
stay in school longer and perceive women as having more choices
When a mom is working, less favorable outcomes occur when?
- both parents work OT
- use poor parenting styles
- spend less time with kids
- if dad doesn't support mom working
What are effects of daycare?
- better social skills
- higher confidence
- more aggression
- more non-compliance
In general, researchers agress that, children below age ____ are not equipped to handle emergiencies and should NEVER be left alone.
In general researchers agree that younger school-aged children who spend more time alone have more _____ problems.
In general, researchers agree that self-care outcomes are greater if the child:
- has been reared with authoritative parenting
- is monitored from a distance
- has regular chores after school (routine)
________ does the best job of explaining how and why abuse happens.
social systems perspective
What factors contribute to divorce?
- parent variables
- child variables
- family variables
What parent variables contribute to abuse?
- unreasonable expectations
- mental illness
- drug/alcohol abuse
- very young/uneducated
- history of abuse
What child variables contribute to abuse?
any type of disability, illness, or behavior problems
What family variables contribute to abuse?
- low income
- large family
- SOCIAL ISOLATION
How do communities contribute to abuse?
few resources/activites for families
How do cultures contribute to abuse?
some promote the use of force and violence
What cultures is child abuse loest in?
ones that disapprove of physical punishment (e.g. Sweden)
Consequences of Maltreatment:
- low self-esteem
- impaired social skills
- substance abuse
- learning problems
- poor motivation
- academic failure
How many victims of abuse repeat the CYCLE?
about 1/4 to 1/3 become abusers
- parent training
- social support
- income improvements
- crisis intervention
Problems with intervention for abuse
- abuse is hard to define/ even harder to provechildren viewed as property
- courts prefer rehab
- children often want to stay home