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  1. What is the difference between major and trace minerals?
    Major minerals are found in the body in amounts greater than five grams whereas trace minerals are found in amounts less than five grams.
  2. List the three most common major minerals found in the human body.
    Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium
  3. List the four most common trace minerals found in the human body.
    Iron, Zinc, Copper, Iodine
  4. List minerals that are important for bone formation.

    What disease results in the reduction of bone mass?
    Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Fluoride

  5. What vitamin is imporant for the absorption of calcium?
    vitamin D
  6. Sodium can lead to an increase in _____ and most people consume a diet too _____ in sodium.
    blood pressure ; high
  7. Name the principal positively charged ion:

    inside the cell
    outside the cell
    • inside - Potassium
    • outside - Sodium
  8. What is the importance of Iron in the diet? What is the recommended amount for women of childbearing age?
    Iron is a component of both hemoglobin and myoglobin, oxygen carrying compounds.

    18 mg/day

    Note: copper is also a component of hemoglobin.
  9. What irreversible mental disorder can arise in infants from a deficiency in iodine during pregnancy?
  10. What is a goiter and what mineral is it associated with?
    A goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland that forms from an iodine deficiency or toxicity.
  11. Zinc is important for growth and immunity. What are some common food sources of zinc?
    meat, shellfish, milk/milk products
  12. ________ is a mineral that helps to maintain blood glucose levels along with insulin.
  13. minerals
    inorganic elements, they are not digested, but do regulate many body processes
  14. mineral functions
    body structure, water balance, energy production, gene expression, cofactors in enzyme systems, interact with other nutrients and components of diet
  15. electrolytes
    maintain water balance and nerve transmission
  16. electrolyte deficiency
    problems with acid/base balance, muscle cramps, confusion apathy constipation, heart beat and even death
  17. electrolyte toxicity
    potassium can cause heart to stop, sodium can cause high blood pressure
  18. sodium
    major cation in extracellular fluid- controlled by kidney
  19. sodium deficiency
    hyponatremia: muscle cramps
  20. toxicity of sodium
    edema or hypertension
  21. hypertension
    high blood pressure- major killer in US- damages arteries, kidneys, and heart. can be controlled by exercise and proper diet
  22. DASH diet
    focuses on more plant foods, especially 9-10 fruits and vegetables/day and choose lean meats and dairy
  23. sources of sodium
    salts or processed and animal foods
  24. chloride
    major anion in extracellular fluid maintaining fluid balance and pH of body fluids and source for hydrochloric acid in stomach for digestion of foods
  25. toxicity of chloride
  26. sources of chloride
    salt, meats, milk, processed foods
  27. potassium
    major cation inside cell- most common electrolyte deficiency. may prevent or correct hypertension when balanced well with sodium. important in nerve impulse and muscle contraction. aids bone strength
  28. potassium deficiency
    muscle weakness and confusion
  29. potassium toxicity
    weakness and vomiting
  30. sources of potassium
    bananas, fresh fruits, vegetables and legumes
  31. toxicity in calcium
    stones in soft tissues like kidneys and arteries, nausea, vomiting, constipation and may interfere with zinc, iron, magnesium, and phosphorous
  32. phosporous
    85% in bones and teeth- the rest in DNA, phospholipids and ATP
  33. magnesium
    over half in bones, lots of enzymes, ATP catalyst. Mild to moderate deficiency is common in US
  34. magnesium deficiency:
    severe weakness and confusion is rare
  35. magnesium toxicity
    supplements only- diarrhea and dehydration
  36. sources of magnessium
    nuts, legumes, grains, and fish
  37. sulfur
    mostly in protein disulfide bridges, which shape protein molecules giving them functionality
  38. sulfur food sources
    protein foods and some food preservatives
  39. iron
    required in small amount- deficiency or toxicity can be fatal
  40. most of iron is found in ______ but some in _______
    hemoglobin, myoglobin
  41. zinc
    gene expression, many enzyme systems, immune functions, sexual maturity. better absorbed form animal food
  42. zinc requires transferrin carrier thus competes with ____ and _____
    iron and copper
  43. zinc deficiency:
    children retards growth, sexual maturity, and impairs wound healing
  44. toxicity of zinc
    vomiting diarrhea, headache, exhaustion, suppressed immune system
  45. iodine
    needed for thyroid hormone- thermostat regulating metabolism
  46. iodine deficiency
    deficiency- goiter or creatinism
  47. toxicity of iodine
    enlarges thyroid
  48. chromium
    enhances activity of insulin
  49. fluoride
    strengthens crystal deposits in bones and teeth- prevents cavities
  50. toxicity in fluoride
    excess can stain teeth during formation (fluorosis) or cause nerve damage and even death
  51. manganese
    bones, liver, kidney, pancreas- cofactor for enzymes
  52. sources of manganese
    nuts, whole grains, leafy vegetables
  53. molybdenum
    cofactor for several metalloenzymes
  54. sources of molybdenum
    legumes, cereals, organ meats
Card Set:
2011-05-05 23:35:05

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