Card Set Information
What is the difference between major and trace minerals?
Major minerals are found in the body in amounts greater than five grams whereas trace minerals are found in amounts less than five grams.
List the three most common major minerals found in the human body.
Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium
List the four most common trace minerals found in the human body.
Iron, Zinc, Copper, Iodine
List minerals that are important for bone formation.
What disease results in the reduction of bone mass?
Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Fluoride
What vitamin is imporant for the absorption of calcium?
Sodium can lead to an increase in _____ and most people consume a diet too _____ in sodium.
blood pressure ; high
Name the principal positively charged ion:
inside the cell
outside the cell
inside - Potassium
outside - Sodium
What is the importance of Iron in the diet? What is the recommended amount for women of childbearing age?
Iron is a component of both hemoglobin and myoglobin, oxygen carrying compounds.
Note: copper is also a component of hemoglobin.
What irreversible mental disorder can arise in infants from a deficiency in iodine during pregnancy?
What is a goiter and what mineral is it associated with?
A goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland that forms from an iodine deficiency or toxicity.
Zinc is important for growth and immunity. What are some common food sources of zinc?
meat, shellfish, milk/milk products
________ is a mineral that helps to maintain blood glucose levels along with insulin.
inorganic elements, they are not digested, but do regulate many body processes
body structure, water balance, energy production, gene expression, cofactors in enzyme systems, interact with other nutrients and components of diet
maintain water balance and nerve transmission
problems with acid/base balance, muscle cramps, confusion apathy constipation, heart beat and even death
potassium can cause heart to stop, sodium can cause high blood pressure
major cation in extracellular fluid- controlled by kidney
hyponatremia: muscle cramps
toxicity of sodium
edema or hypertension
high blood pressure- major killer in US- damages arteries, kidneys, and heart. can be controlled by exercise and proper diet
focuses on more plant foods, especially 9-10 fruits and vegetables/day and choose lean meats and dairy
sources of sodium
salts or processed and animal foods
major anion in extracellular fluid maintaining fluid balance and pH of body fluids and source for hydrochloric acid in stomach for digestion of foods
toxicity of chloride
sources of chloride
salt, meats, milk, processed foods
major cation inside cell- most common electrolyte deficiency. may prevent or correct hypertension when balanced well with sodium. important in nerve impulse and muscle contraction. aids bone strength
muscle weakness and confusion
weakness and vomiting
sources of potassium
bananas, fresh fruits, vegetables and legumes
toxicity in calcium
stones in soft tissues like kidneys and arteries, nausea, vomiting, constipation and may interfere with zinc, iron, magnesium, and phosphorous
85% in bones and teeth- the rest in DNA, phospholipids and ATP
over half in bones, lots of enzymes, ATP catalyst. Mild to moderate deficiency is common in US
severe weakness and confusion is rare
supplements only- diarrhea and dehydration
sources of magnessium
nuts, legumes, grains, and fish
mostly in protein disulfide bridges, which shape protein molecules giving them functionality
sulfur food sources
protein foods and some food preservatives
required in small amount- deficiency or toxicity can be fatal
most of iron is found in ______ but some in _______
gene expression, many enzyme systems, immune functions, sexual maturity. better absorbed form animal food
zinc requires transferrin carrier thus competes with ____ and _____
iron and copper
children retards growth, sexual maturity, and impairs wound healing
toxicity of zinc
vomiting diarrhea, headache, exhaustion, suppressed immune system
needed for thyroid hormone- thermostat regulating metabolism
deficiency- goiter or creatinism
toxicity of iodine
enhances activity of insulin
strengthens crystal deposits in bones and teeth- prevents cavities
toxicity in fluoride
excess can stain teeth during formation (fluorosis) or cause nerve damage and even death
bones, liver, kidney, pancreas- cofactor for enzymes
sources of manganese
nuts, whole grains, leafy vegetables
cofactor for several metalloenzymes
sources of molybdenum
legumes, cereals, organ meats