Chapter 17

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  1. United Nations
    An international peace keeping organization founded in 1945 to provide security to the nations of the world
  2. Iron Curtain
    During the Cold War, the boundary seperating the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the mostly democratic nations of Western Europe
  3. Containment
    A US foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the US tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak coutries to resist Soviet advances
  4. Truman Doctrine
    Announced by President Harry in 1947, a US policy of giving economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents
  5. Marshall Plan
    A US program of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after WWII
  6. Cold War
    The state of diplomatic hostility between the US and the USSR in the decades following WWII
  7. NATO
    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization-a defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European Nations, the US and Canada
  8. Warsaw Pact
    A military alliance formed in 1955 by the USSR and seven Eastern Euopean countries
  9. Brinkmanship
    A policy of threatening to got to war in response to any enemy aggression
  10. Commune
    In Communist China, a collective farm on which a great number of people work and live together
  11. Red Gaurds
    Militia units formed by yound Chinese people in 1966 in response to Mao Zedong's call for a social and cultural revolution
  12. Cultural Revolution
    A 1966-1976 uprising in China led by the Red Gaurds, with the goal of establishing a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal
  13. Domino Theory
    The idea that if a nation falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under Communists control
  14. Vietnamization
    President Richard Nixon's strategy for ending US involvement in the Vietnam War, involving a gradual withdrawal of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
  15. Third World
    During the Cold War, the developing nations not allied with either the US or the USSR
  16. Nonaligned nations
    The independent countries that remainded neutral in the Cold War competition between the US and the USSR
  17. Détente
    A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the US during the presidency of Richard Nixon
  18. "Great Leap Forward"
    Mao's 1958 effort to expand the success of the first 5-yr plan
  19. Nicaragua
    Sandinistas fought against contras in this central American country
  20. Destalinization
    Policy begun in the 1950s to purge the Soviet Union of Stalin's memory
  21. Berlin Aircraft
    Efforts by the United States and Britain to defeat Soviet blockade of German City
  22. Sputnik
    The Soviet launching of this unmanned satellite in 1957 led to an increase in US science education
  23. Bays of Pigs
    Failed invasion of Anti-Castro Cubans of Cuba in April 1961
  24. Prague Spring
    Breif period of reform in Czechoslovakia before Soviet invasion in August of 1968
  25. Nationalists
    Losers in Chinese Civil War who retreated to the Island of Taiwan
  26. Winston Churchill
    Leader who first used the phrase "iron curtain"
  27. U-2 Incident
    Soviets shot down one of these spy planes in 1960 heightening Cold War tensions
  28. Cuban Missile Crisis
    Incident in 1962 in which the US and the USSR bring the world to the brink of nuclear war
  29. Buffer
    Stalin created this wall of protection in Eastern Europe to shield itself from another invasion from the West
  30. People's Republic of China
    Name of mainland China after the Communist Revolution in 1949
  31. Ayatollah Khomeini
    Establisked an Islamic State in Iran in 1979
  32. Strategic Defense Initiative
    Reagan's program announced in 1983 to protect the US against enemy missiles
  33. Colonialism
    Third world countries were economically poor and politically unstable due to a lond history of this
  34. Krushchev
    Soviet leader following Stalin who called for "peaceful competition" with capitalist states
  35. Korean War
    Four million soldiers and civilians died in this war in which almost no territory changed hands
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Chapter 17
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