Tissues and Skeletal System

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BiggestSugarlandFan
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84053
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Tissues and Skeletal System
Updated:
2011-05-05 19:57:58
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Bio
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Human Body Systems
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  1. Tissues
    • Tissue: Group of cells closely associated that have a similiar structure & perform a related function
    • Four Types:
    • Epithelium - Covering
    • Connective - Support
    • Muscle - Movement
    • Nervous - Control

    * Most organs contain all four types
  2. Epithelial Tissues
    • * Tissues are made up of sheets of cells
    • * Two broad classes of epithelial tissues:
    • Simple Epithelium: One layer or cell shape
    • -Squamous (squashed/flattened) (lining of blood vessels) Exchange of nutrients, wastes & gases
    • -Cuboidal (Cubed) (Walls of glands) Secretes & reabsorbs water & small molecules
    • -Columnar (rectangular - possess cilia) (lining of the intestines and uterus) Absorbs nutrients, secretes mucus

    • Stratified Epithelium: Multiple layers and cell shapes
    • * Classified based on the shape of the uppermost layer of cells (squamous, cubodidal, columnar)
    • * Transitional Stratified Epithelial: Cells of transitional stratified epithelial tissues can change their shape and can change the number of cell layers when changed
  3. Features of the Side Surfaces of Cells of Epithelial
    • • Tight junctions: Leak proof seal between neighboring cells
    • ◦ In the intestines, this prevents digestive enzymes from escaping into the blood stream
    • • Desmosomes: places where cells are anchored to one another
    • ◦ Important in muscle and skin tissues
    • • Gap junctions: Channels between cells
  4. Features of the Top Surfaces of Cells of Epithelial Tissue
    • • Microvilli: Finger-like projections of the plasma membrane
    • ◦ Increase surface area for absorption
    • ◦ Example: Small intestine
    • •Cilia: Oar-like proteins
    • ◦ Moves mucus over epithelial surfaces
    • ◦ Example: Respiratory tubes
  5. Connective Tissues
    • • Universal throughout the body
    • • Underlies epithelial tissue
    • ◦ Never exposed to the environment outside of the body
    • • Cells are suspended in a complex structure called the Extracellular Matrix
    • ◦ The extracellular matrix is made up of two parts:
    • Fibers (three different types):
    • • Collagen gives structure
    • • Reticular fibers give order
    • • Elastin provides elasticity
    • Ground Substance: Jelly-like material that fills in the gaps
    • ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    • • Functions:
    • ◦ Protect organs (bone & cartilage are connective tissues)
    • ◦ Surround and interconnect tissues
    • ◦ Transport materials (blood is a connective tissue)
    • ◦ Store energy (fat tissue is a connective tissue)
  6. Cells of Connective Tissues
    • • Fibroblasts are responsible for the production and maintenance of the fibers & ground tissue
    • ◦ Immune Cells
    • • Macrophages (“big eaters”): Engulf parasites
    • • Plasma cells: Produce large amounts of antibodies
    • • Mast cells: Involved in wound healing
    • • Neutrophils: First cells to arrive at the site of an infection
    • ◦ Produce a net which traps and kills bacteria
    • ◦ Principle component of pus (gives pus its white color)
  7. Overview of the Skeletal System
    • • Composed of the body’s bones and associated ligaments, tendons, and cartilages.
    • • Functions:
    • ◦ Support
    • ▪ The bones of the legs, pelvic girdle, & vertebral column support the weight of the erect body
    • ▪ The mandible (jawbone) supports the teeth
    • ▪ Other bones support various organs and tissues
    • • Protection
    • ◦ The bones of the skull protect the brain, while vertebrae protect the spinal cord
    • ◦ Ribs and sternum (breastbone) protect the lungs and heart
    • • Movement
    • ◦ Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and use them as levers to move the body
    • ◦ Reservoir for minerals and adipose tissue
    • ▪ 99% of the body’s calcium is stored in bone
    • ▪ 85% of the body’s phosphorous is stored in bone
    • ▪ Adipose tissue is found in the marrow of certain bones
    • • Hematopoiesis: Blood cell formation
    • ◦ All blood cells are made in the marrow of certain bones
  8. Axial skeleton
    • ▪ Forms long axis of the body
    • ▪ Includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage.
    • ▪ These bones are involved in protection, support, and carrying other body parts.
    • ▪ Bones of the Axial Skeleton
    • • Skull: Frontal bone, zygomatic, temporal bone, maxilla, mandible
    • • Vertebrae: Cervical (with atlas, axis & hyoid bone), thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx,cartilage discs
    • • Ribs: True, false, floating, manubrium, sternum, xiphoid process
  9. Appendicular skeleton
    • ▪ Bones of upper & lower limbs and the girdles (shoulder bones and hip bones) that attachthem to the axial skeleton.
    • ▪ Involved in locomotion and manipulation of the environment
    • ▪ Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton
    • • Shoulder: Scapula, clavicle, humerus
    • • Lower Arm: Radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpus, phalanges
    • • Hip: Ischium, ilium, pubis, pubic symphysis, femur
    • • Lower Leg: Patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges, calcaneus
  10. Joints
    • • Immovable Joint:
    • ◦ Skull, sacroiliac joint, between ribs & vertebrae
    • ◦ At birth, the bone formation is incomplete and the bones don't join each other; this allows thebaby to fit through the birth canal
    • • Ball and Socket: Provides variety of movement
    • ◦ Top of humerus & femur
    • • Hinge Joint: Permits back & forth movement
    • ◦ Elbow & knee
    • • Gliding Joint: Permits back & forth movement
    • ◦ Wrist & ankle
    • • Pivotal Joint: Permits rotation in one plane
    • ◦ Neck & head, radius & ulna
    • • Saddle Joint: Up and down motion
    • ◦ Thumb
    • • In a joint, the contacting surfaces are covered with cartilage. Ligaments hold the bones in a joint toone another. The joints are lubricated by secretions from the ligaments.
  11. Four Types of Bones
    • • Long Bones
    • ◦ Much longer than they are wide
    • ◦ All bones of the limbs except for the patella (kneecap), and the bones of the wrist and ankle
    • ◦ Consists of a shaft plus 2 expanded ends
    • ◦ Your finger bones are considered long bones even though they’re short
    • • Short Bones
    • ◦ Roughly cube shaped
    • ◦ Bones of the wrist and the ankle
    • Flat Bones
    • ◦ Thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved
    • ◦ Scapulae (shoulder blades), sternum, ribs and most bones of the skull
    • Irregular Bones
    • ◦ Have weird shapes that fit none of the 3 previous classes
    • ◦ Vertebrae, hip bones, 2 skull bones (sphenoid and the ethmoid bones)
  12. Bone Structure
    • • Bones are organs. Therefore, they’re composed of multiple tissue types.
    • • Bones are composed of:
    • ◦ Connective tissue
    • ◦ Adipose tissue
    • ◦ Cartilage/Bone
    • ◦ Vascular tissue
    • ◦ Lymphatic tissue
    • ◦ Nervous tissue
    • • Because bone tissue is a type of connective tissue, it consists of cells plus a significant amount of extracellular matrix
  13. Bone Cells
    • • Osteoblasts: Bone-building cells
    • ◦ Synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components of bone matrix
    • ◦ Initiate the process of calcification
    • Osteocytes: Mature bone cells
    • ◦ Osteoblasts that have become trapped by the secretion of matrix
    • ◦ No longer secrete matrix
    • ◦ Responsible for maintaining the bone tissue
    • Osteoclasts: Huge cells derived from the fusion of as many as 50 cells
    • ◦ Cells that digest bone matrix
    • .............▪ This process is called bone resorption and is part of normal bone growth, development,maintenance, and repair
    • ......................• As a child, the amount of bone that you make out paces the amount of bone resorptionthat occurs. As you grow older, the rates of formation and resorption become equal.
    • .............▪ Osteoporosis is a condition due to resorption occurring more quickly than formation.
  14. 7. Bone Matrix
    • • Consists of organic and inorganic components
    • ◦ 1/3 organic and 2/3 inorganic by weight

    • • Organic component
    • ◦ Consists of several materials that are secreted by the osteoblasts:
    • ▪ Collagen fibers and other organic materials
    • ▪ These (particularly the collagen) provide the bone with resilience and the ability to resiststretching and twisting
    • • Inorganic component of bone matrix
    • ◦ Consists mainly of 2 salts:
    • ▪ Calcium phosphate
    • ▪ Calcium hydroxide
    • ◦ Bone also contains smaller amounts of magnesium, fluoride, and sodium
    • ◦ These minerals give bone its characteristic hardness and the ability to resist compression
  15. Long Bone Structure
    • • A long bone is essentially a shaft with two expanded ends
    • ◦ Diaphysis: The shaft of the bone
    • ▪ Consists of a thick collar of compact bone surrounding a central cavity that contains the marrow
    • ▪ Two types of marrow
    • • Bone marrow: Blood cell production
    • • Yellow marrow: Fat storage
    • ◦ Epiphysis: An expanded end of the bone
    • ▪ Thin layer of compact bone covering an interior of spongy bone
    • ▪ Joint surface of each epiphysis is covered with cartilage.
    • ▪ The cartilage cushions the bone ends and reduces friction during movement
  16. Bone Marrow
    • • In a child, the marrow cavity of nearly every bone is filled with red bone marrow
    • ◦ Red bone marrow looks like blood but with a thicker consistency

    • • In young to middle-aged adults, the shafts of the long bones are filled with fatty yellow bonemarrow
    • ◦ Yellow marrow no longer produces blood, although in the event of severe or chronic anemia(lack of red blood cells), it can transform back into red marrow

    • In adults, red marrow is limited to the axial skeleton, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, and epiphyses of the humerus and femur

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