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Describe the difference between teaching and learning.
- Just because a teacher stands up in front of a room and "delivers" a lesson does not mean that she/he taught the information. If the student does not learn the information - the teacher did not teach.
- The term teaching and learning are integrally interwoven.
What are some examples of an expert teacher?
- Infer accurately
- Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information
- Comprehend meaning behind classroom activity
- Are proactive
- Identify instructional and classroom management problems
- Have complex, elaborate and interconnected mental images
- Possess good questioning skills
- Their mental images facilitate their learning
- Assess students frequently and reflect on results.
What are the characteristics of a novice teacher?
- Do not infer accurately
- Can't automatically discriminate relevant from irrelevant information
- Have trouble "reading between the lines" of classroom activity
- Are reactive
- Have problems with complex classroom phenomena
- Do not possess sophisticated theories of teaching
- Lack questioning skills
- Their planning facilitates the construction of their schema
- Assess infrequently and do not reflect on results
Define 3 models of research studies to understand and improve learning.
- Descriptive studies are studies in which events are described in a particular class. These studies may also include survey results, interview responses, sample of actual class dialogue, or audio/video recordings.
- Correlation studies have to do with the relationship between twoevents or measurements. A positive correlation is where the two events increase or decrease together. A negative correlation is when one factor increases andthe other factor decreases or the other way around.
- Experimental studies are used to study cause and effect. They use a research method in which variables are manipulated and the effects are recorded.
Describe Piaget's stages of intellectual development - including key terms.
- Stage 1 (birth - 2yrs) - Sensorimotor - A child begins to interact with the environment.
- Object permanence - the understanding that obects exist in the environment whether they perceive them or not.
- Imitation Example: A child does not need to see the mother combing her hair before combing a teddy bear's head.
- Stage 2 (2 - 7 yrs) - Pre-operational - a child represents the work symbolically.
- Symbolic representation - (semiotic function) the ability to use symbols - language, pictures, signs, or gestures - to represent actions or objects.
- Perceptual Centration - tendency of young children to focus attention on only one salient aspect of an object, situation, or problem at a time
- Irreversibility - difficult for childern to think backwards.
- Egocentrism - to see the world and the experiences of others from their own view point.
- Stage 3 (7 to 11 yrs) - Concrete Operations - A child learns the rules such as conversation.
- Reversibility - the ability to reverse a process mentally
- Decentration - can consider more than one aspect of an object
- Conservation - ability to recognize that properties do not change although form changes
- Stage 4 (11yrs and up) - Formal Operations - an adolescent can surpass the concrete situation and think about the furture.
- Hypothetico-deductive reasoning - a formal-operations problem solving strategy in chich an individual begins by identifying all the factors that might affect a problem and then deduces and systematically evaluates specific solutions.
- adolescent egocentrism - they know that other people may have differing perceptions and beliefs; they just become very focused on their own ideas.
What is Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development?
- The area between the child's current development level "as determined by independent problem solving" and the level of development that the child could achieve "through adult guidence or in colaboration with more capable peers."
- Somewhere between what the student already knows and what the student isn't read to learn.
What is the difference between Piaget and Vysotsky view's of development and learning?
- Piaget believes development PUSHES learning. As a child develops they automatically move into the next stage of development.
- Vygotsky believes that learning PULLS development. If you work with a child you can pull them into the next stage of development.
Describe Piaget's 3 mental processes in Child Development.
- The first mental process in child development in organization where the thoughts and behaviors are arranged into a coherent system or structures. These systems or structures are called schemes, which are mental systems of perception or experience. For example, sucking through a straw or eating.
- The second mental process, adaptation, is a person’s ability to adjust or adapt to their environment. Adaptation involves two processes - assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the fitting new information into a current scheme and accommodation is changing existing schemes with new information.
- The third mental process is equilibrium. This is a search for a balance. If an event or situation fits a scheme then equilibrium is in place, but if it doesn’t fit we change our schemes until there is the right amount of equilibrium.
Describe the 4 processes of Human Development.
What is Bronfenbrenner's Bio-ecological Model of Human Development?
The nested social and cultural contexts that shape development. Every person develops within a microsystem (the person's immediate relationships and activities), inside a mesosystem (the set of interactions and relationships among all the elements of the microsystem), embedded in an exosystem (all social settings including or excluding the child), all of which are a part of the macrosystem (the larger society - its values, laws, conventions, and traditions) of the culture.
Describe the Eight Stages of Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development?
- Stage 1 (birth-18 months) - Trust vs. Mistrust - If the constancy of interaction between the infant and others meets the basic needs of the infant, then trust is developed.
- Stage 2 (18 months-3 years) - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - If the child is encouraged to explore his/her environment, if attempts to dress are uninterrupted, if the mess made while pouring cereal is tolerated, then the crisis will more likely be resolved in the direction of autonomy, a sense of independence.
- Stage 3 (3-6 years) - Initiative vs. Guilt - If you have ever watched a child "nurse" the family dog, or "fix" the clock, you have observed a child in the initiative stage. If children's interactions and questions are recognized and answered sincerely, they will come away with a positive feeling about themselves.
- Stage 4 (6-12 years) - Industry vs. Inferiority - If children are encouraged and praised and experience early success in school, they will likely develop a sense of industry, which is an eagerness to produce.
- Stage 5 (adolescence) - Identity vs. Role Diffusion - Identity is a sense of well-being, a feeling of knowing where one is going, and an inner assuredness. If the nature of the adolescent's interactions is positive, a sense of self-confidence and stability is instilled. Whether fulfilling the roles of a friend, child, student, leader, boyfriend, or girlfriend the adolescent feels at ease.
- Stage 6 (young adulthood) - Intimacy vs. Isolation - The young adult's personality is influenced by efforts to establish intimacy or a close psychological relationship with another person.
- Stage 7 (young adulthood-middle age) - Generativity vs. Stagnation - The term generativity refers to a concern for future generations. Childbearing and nurturing occupies the feelings and thoughts of people at this stage. Typical issues people face at this time are career vs. family.
- Stage 8 (later adulthood-old age) - Integrity vs. Despair - integrity is a sense of understanding how one fits into one's culture and accepting that one's place is unique. An inability to accept one's sense of self at this stage leads to despair.
Describe Piaget's Framework of Moral Reasoning.
- Morality of Constraint: (Little Kid Morality)
- Rules define what is right and what is wrong.
- Rules are established by authoritative people.
- Rules should be obeyed.
- Morality of Cooperation: (Older Kid Morality)
- Adolescents know that rules are not "carved in stone".
- These kids know that rules provide general guidelines.
What are Kohlberg's Stages of Reasoning?
- level 1 - Preconventional Morality - judgments made before children understand the conventions of society.
- Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Orientation
- Stage 2: Instrumental Exchange Orientation
- Level 2 - Conventional Morality - based on the rules or conventions of society.
- Stage 3: The Interpersonal Conformity Orientation. Focuses on the expectations of others. Be nice or good, looking for approval of others.
- Stage 4: The Law-and-Order Orientation The conventions of society have been established so that society can function. Laws are necessary.
- Level 3 - Post-Conventional Morality
- Stage 5: The Prior Rights and Social Contract Orientation Laws are open to evaluation. Laws should not be obeyed simply because they are law, but because there is mutual agreement between the individual and society that these laws guarantee a person's rights. In this level, a typical answer to Heinz's problem is, "Sometimes laws have to be disregarded". An example would be: when a person's life depends on breaking the law.
- Stage 6: The Universal Ethical Principles Orientation The principles that determine moral behavior are self-chosen. The principles unify a person's belief about equality, justice, and ethics.
Summarize Gilligan's Theory of Gender-based Morality.
- LEVEL 1 - Orientation toward self-interest. Woman focuses on what's best for herself.
- LEVEL 2 - Identification of goodness with responsibility for others. Focuses on sense of responsibility for others and a capacity for self-sacrifice.
- LEVEL 3 - Highest level. Focusing on the dynamics between self and others. Achieves an understanding that her actions must reflect both a concern for self and a concern for others.
Explain ways teachers can help children develop social skills.
- interaction through cooperative learning tasks
- peer tutoring after school
- after-school activities
- structured recess and play time
Explain 'self concept' and 'self esteem.'
- self concept - individuals' knowledge and beliefs about themselves - their ideas, feelings, attitudes, and expectations.
- self esteem - the value each of us places on our own characteristics, abilities, and behaviors.
How did Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon contribute to education?
Binet was face with a question: How do we identify a student who needs extra attention early in their schooling? In order to catch this these students early, before they fail in regular classes, Binet and Simon created 58 tests for ages 3 to 13 to identify the child’s mental age. The mental age of the child may not match the chronological age of the child. For example, an eight year old may have the mental age of a six or nine year old. After revisions at Stanford University the idea of intelligence quotient (IQ) was added. A person’s IQ is calculated with this formula: IQ = mental age / chronological age * 100. An average IQ score is 100.
What is the difference between fixed and incremental intelligence?
- Fixed intelengence believes that intelligence is overwhelmingly a product of heredity, which means that children's intelligence is largely determined by that of their parents and is set the day they are conceived.
- Incremental intelligence believes that intelligence is shaped mostly by factors in a person's social environment, such as the amount a child is read to and talked to.
Describe Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences.
Gardner's discontent has to do with the fact that writing and doing math has been the main indicator of one's intelligence for many years. Gardner's perspective is that although these two forms of symbolization are important for most of the tasks required of students in school, there are other symbol systems that are important for learning and performance. Spatial, Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Bodily-kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, and Naturalistic.
Describe an environment where students engage in activities for their specific intelligence.
Explain how you will integrate the multiple intelligences into your classroom.
Explain Sternberg's Theory of Triarchic Intelligence.
- Intelligence comes in three forms:
- Analytical intelligence is when someone demonstrates the ability to compare, analyze, make judgments, and can evaluate a situation.
- Creative intelligence is when someone demonstrates the ability to invent, design, and create. These characteristics help an individual to cope with new situations. There are 3 components:
- Componential Intelligence - Cognitive processes
- (thinking skills, planning strategies, evaluating performance), Problem solving (thinking necessary to execute plans, carry out tasks), Knowledge Acquisition (new learning occurs here)
- Experiential intelligence explains how intelligence is related to novel tasks or new ideas in one's environment. It deals with one's ability to formulate new ideas and combine seemingly unrelated facts or information.
- Contextual Intelligence - intelligent behavior must be sensitive to the context in which it occurs. Adaptation is one's ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions and to shape the environment so as to maximize one's strengths and compensate for one's weaknesses.
- Practical intelligence is when someone demonstrates the ability to apply and put something into practice.
Recognize and explain the formula for 'intelligence quotient'.
A person’s IQ is calculated with this formula: IQ = mental age / chronological age * 100.
Describe what "culture" means.
- Culture: A way of life in which people share a common language and similar values, such as: Religion, Habits of thinking, Artistic expression, Patterns of social and interpersonal relations
- Macroculture: A larger shared national culture representing the core values of a society.
- Microculture: Groups within cultures that share particular values. They share many, but not all, of the dominant values. Such as Knowledge, Skills, Symbols, Perspective.
What are the four areas of diversity?
- Cultural Diversity: Culture - A way of life in which people share a common language and similar values.
- Socioeconomic Status Diversity: This refers to the status of family is society. This status could include income, education or occupation.
- Race and Ethnic Diversity: Race is a category used to differentiate groups of people based upon biological differences, not cultural differences. Ethnicity is the identity of a group of people who
- have a common national origin, religion, or traditions.
- Language Diversity: Language is the way that teachers are able to communicate with students and vise versa.
- Additive bilingualism '+' has a positive affect. When a concept is learned in one language that means it is also learned in another language (this gives a broader perspective).
- Subtractive bilingualism '-' has a negative affect. Although conversationally competent in both languages, this student has not developed the thinking skills necessary for full literacy in their first language.
- Limited English proficiency has a negative affect. When a student's first language is not English and they depend primarily on their 1st language for communication and understanding.
- Dominant bilingualism neither a positive or negative affect. When a student is fully competent in their first language and nearly competent in their second language.
How does poverty impact a student's ability to learn?
Families in povertyseldon have access to high-quality preschool care for their young childern. Poor childern read less and spend more time watching TV; They have less access to books, computers, libraries, trips, and museums. These home and neighboorhood resources seem to have the greatest impact on children's achievement when school is not in session.
How do you avoid being partial to one specific group of students?
- treat everyone the same
- call on everyone equally
- spend time with each student an appropriate amount of time
Describe strategies to help you work with culturally diverse students.
- Get to know the customs, traditions, and values of the students
- Learn the meaning of different behaviors for your students
- Provide a range of ways to learn material to accommodate a range of learning styles
Describe a lesson plan to integrate multicultural education into your classroom.
Use holidays as a chance to discuss the origins and meanings of traditions