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2011-05-09 15:50:15

Anatomy Final, all lectures since exam 3
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  1. Male gonads
  2. Female Gonads
  3. Urogenital system
    Urine and genitals together.
  4. Gonad
    Organs that make gametes
  5. Gamete
    A cell that fuses with another during fertizliation in sexually reproducing organisms
  6. Spermatazoa
    Mature male germ cell, fertilizes mature ovum
  7. Ova
    (s. ovum) 1n female gamete
  8. Ovary
    Ovum producing organ of the female reproductive system
  9. Testis
    Produces sperm
  10. Primary sexual characteristics
    Strutures in the body directly concered w/ reproduction. IE testis/ovary/external genetalia
  11. Secondary sexual characteristics
    Any features which distinguish two sexes of a species but are not part of the reproductive system
  12. Oogenesis
    Creation of an ovum, female form of gametogenesis
  13. Spermatogenesis
    creation of sperm, male form of gametogenesis
  14. 2N Chrosome number
    Diploid 46 in humans
  15. 1N Chromsome Number
    Haploid 23 in humans
  16. Embryo
    time of conception-8 weeks
  17. Fetus
    9 weeks-Birth
  18. Dartos
    Smooth Muscle in scrotum
  19. cremaster muscle
    striated muscle in scrotum that pulls testis closer to body (involuntary)
  20. Vascularization of testis
    gonadal arteries and veins
  21. Internal structure of testis
    Seminiferous tubulues-site of spermatogenesis-a process not involving cell division, loss of cytoplasm and generates a flagellum
  22. Kinds of cells in tubules
    • 1)Spermatogonia (2N)
    • 2)Primary spermocyte (2N)
    • 3)Secondary spermocyte (1N)
    • 4)Spermatid (1N)
    • 5)Spermatazoa (1N)
  23. Other kinds of cell in testis
    1) Sertoli cells, AKA nurse cells, found in wall of tubule, functon to protect spermocyte, also provide hormones.

    2)Leydig cells-lie between seminiferous tubules, and are endocrine in function, provide testosterone to testis by diffusion into capillaries
  24. Accessory glands of male reproductive system
    • 1)Seminal vesicle-produces 60% of semen by volume, secretes fructose into semes
    • 2)Prostate-produces 30% of semen by volume
    • 3)Bulbourethral gland (Cowper's gland)
  25. Content of semen
    • -Nutrients for sperm-fructose
    • -Alkalinity to enhance motility
    • -seminalplasm-antibiotic
    • -prostoglandin, many functions in both male and female repro system. Thins cervical mucus, reverse persitalsis in female system
  26. Structure of penis
    • Consists of 3 connective tissue bodies
    • -Two called corpus cavernosum
    • -one called corpus spongiosum-houses urethra
  27. Male gonadotropic hormones
    ICSH-interstital luetinizing hormone-from the pituitary, simtulates interstital cells to secrete testosterone

    FSH-Follice stimulating hormone, from the pituitary, must be present for testosterone to be effective in stimulating production of spermatazoa

    Testosterone-made within cells of Leydig. It is released into the interstitium between semineferous tubules, where it is picked up by blood and distributed throughout the body. It has many effects, one of which is the stimulation of spermatogenesis.
  28. The movement function of muscle tissue is accompanied by
    Muscle tissue pulling on resistant surfaces such as cartilage
  29. Straited muscle can total up to __% of body weight?
  30. When the phrase "all or nothing" is used, it is in reference to?
    Muscle Fiber
  31. The connective tissue wrapping of muscles and muscles components are often refered to as?
  32. A histological, logitudinal section of a collagenous component at a region adjacent to a bone, is seen to contain muscle fibers at one of its ends. The component is?
    A Tendon
  33. Muscles are flexible but not very elastic?
  34. Voluntary muscle is...
    Striated and somatic
  35. Smooth muscle can commonly be found...
    in the walls of tubular organs, such as the gut and blood vessels, as well as in the walls of the urninary bladder
  36. Muscles of facial expression are...
    Largely a mamillian function, and have social signaling as one their most important functions.
  37. Muscles of facial expression are...
    Composed of striated muscle
  38. Smooth muscle can be reliably identified histologically because...
    it lacks cross striations
  39. Smooth muscle is ____ involuntary
  40. Smooth muscle is responsible for...
    Local control of blood flow in some vessels, largely responsible for labor in child birth, and controlling the movement of nutrients in the intenstine (mainly involuntary things)
  41. Cardiac muscle is characterized by
    Branching muscle fibers, intercalated discs, transversely oriented striations
  42. The rectus abdominus muscle...
    is segmented, has fibers that run perpendicular to to those of the transverse abdominus, functions to compress the abdomen, is composed of striated voluntary muscle
  43. A muscle attachment that attaches to the part that moves is called
  44. The body of muscles that extend to the toes are to be found in the____?
  45. If a muscle in an agonist of another muscle it____?
    it has generally the same function
  46. Many muscles have tendons that work like a pulley and reverse direction upon contraction
  47. When a muscle causes the angle between the moving and non moving portion to decrease, the movement is called ____?
  48. A striated sphincter muscle not attached to the skull is the ____?
    Anal sphincter
  49. Intrinsic muscles attach____?
    from one portion of an organ to another portion of the same organ
  50. The figure below represents blood vessels. The arrows indicated blood flow within the vessel. The vessel is __?

    <- To heart <-
  51. Capilaries have walls composed of?
    Extremely thin, flat epithelial cells.
  52. A good diagnostic character of veins and arteries is?
    The direction of blood flow in regards to the heart
  53. The main difference between an arteriole and a meta arteriole is ____?
    The amount of smooth muscle in the wall
  54. All blood cells start out having nuceli?
  55. The muscles attached to they hyoid bone function primarily in?
  56. Muscles are most common regarded as?
  57. The shape of grey matter seen here is best described by ___?
    Changes size depending on the specific location of the section
  58. Of the five common circulating leukocytes, which is the one most common on blood smears?
  59. Hemoglobin is found ___?
    in RBC in cytoplasm
  60. All arteries terminate in vessels called
    None of these (Artery vessels?)
  61. Hemoglobin functions primarily as ____?
    Carrier molecule for oxygen and carbondioxide
  62. A cranial nerve the innervates the retina
    Nerve II
  63. Veins tend to be larger than artieries
  64. Which cranial nerve is mostly a motor nerve but has a few sensory fibers that go into the inner ear?
    Nerve VII
  65. Cranial nerves are anatomically distinct from other nerves because ____?
    They take their origins from the brain
  66. Neurons and Nerves differ in that____?
    Nerves are a kind of cells and neurons are best thought of a as a type of organ
  67. Neuralglial cells have ____?
    many different functions and may be found in the ganglia and ....?
  68. Myelin is a ___?
    kind of lipo-protein
  69. Integration of a series of nerve impulses occurs commonly in ____?
    In the cerebellum, in the cortex, in the cerebrum, and in gray matter
  70. The number of morphologically distinct types of WBCs that are commonly in circulation are ?
  71. An important fact that helps explain the existance of ear moving muscles in humans is ____?
    Nearly all mamals have these muscles
  72. Which cranial nerve innerviates three distinct regions of the head and the face?
    Nerve V
  73. Cranial Nerve X _____?
    Has fibers that innerviate the heart, and is a mixed nerve
  74. A diagnostic feature of a meta arteriole is____?
    They have an incomplete investment of smooth muscle fibers
  75. Capillaries consit of a tube composed of simple squamous epithelium
  76. Diapedesis is a pathological condition that is treatable
  77. An analysis of the conent of a blood clot would reveal that it is primarily composed of _____?
    Largely fibrin and erthrocytes
  78. The muscle that take the origin from the hyoid bone function largely to _____?
    enable the function of extinsic tounge muscles
  79. A transverse section of the very tip of a terminal phalynx would contain no striated muscle and only smooth muscle that is _____?
    Associated with blood vessels
  80. Tiny anuclated formed bodies that are found in blood and is important to blood clotting is?
  81. "Blood as a tissue has two main functions, 1) To deliver oxygen to tissues and remove carbon dioxide (a gas exchange function). 2) A nutrative function- delivering glucose, amino acids, and other molecules essential to the metabolism of a cell"
    This phrase is enormesly flawed because it is incomplete
  82. Blood cells are named and classified primarily using ____?
    The cell morphology and staining properties
  83. Hematpoesis and diapedesis are closely related phenomoneon.
  84. A five pound blood clot was collected from a whale. The clot was put through a strainer and yellowish fluid was extracted. This fluid is?
    Blood Sera
  85. The pubic symphysis _______?
    may undego changes under hormonal influences and become more elastic as well as attaching the pubic bones together
  86. The hypodermis is characerized by dense regular connective tissue
  87. The dermis is largely avascular
  88. Dense bone is only found in apendicular bones
  89. Eccrine glands usually empty into hair follicles
  90. Sebaceous glands are of epidermal origin
  91. Sebaceous glands may empty to the surface of the epidermis from a pore either independent of hair follicles or may secrete into a hair follicle
  92. The reason that hair can function as a good insulator is because ____?
    Hair traps air which prevents heat transfer
  93. Exocringe glands are usually _____?
    derived from epithelilal cells
  94. The following types of cells can be found in connective tissue
    Fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
  95. The most common type of cartilage, found on the end of bones and in joints is ______?
  96. The skin glands that secrete primarily a watery based fluid is
    Sebaceous or sweat glands
  97. the integumentary system is composed entirely of sturctures of
    both ectodermal and mesodermal in origin
  98. The main types of tissues are___?
    epithelia, connective tissue, muscle, and nervous
  99. A major physiological difference between cartilage and bone is that____?
    extracellular matrix of the tissue that is normally calcified in bone, the extracellular matrix of cartilage is usally permeable to water, cartilage is mostly avascular
  100. Muscle and bone are derived embyonically from _____?
  101. The organic component of bone matrix is ____?
    The portion made of collagen
  102. Intermembraneous bone has percursor during development of___?
    Collagen membranes
  103. Osteoclast activity results in _____?
    freeing calcium ions into the blood
  104. Phalanges are ___?
    none of these
  105. A bullet penetrates the chest center and passes through ventral (anterior) flat bone and continues on to lodge in the body of a thoracic vetebra. The name of the flat bone that was first peneterated by the bullet is____?
    Manubrium or xyphoid process
  106. How many of the different tissues pictured demonstrate squamous cells
  107. How many of the different tissues pictured demonstrate true stratified epithilium
  108. Normal bone development is especiall dependent on ___?
    Vitamin D3
  109. The criteria for determine if a gland is exocrine or endocrine, depends on _______?
    whether or not the gland secretes into a duct
  110. The first chemical solution used to prepare a tissue sample for histology is likely to be____?
    Formaldehyde solution
  111. An articulation that is free moving is called?
  112. They synovial membrane ___?
    lines the joint cavity, and secertes synovial fluid
  113. A center of ossification is____?
    Where bony tissue first comes into existence during the development of a bone
  114. Bone derivives is strength and resilience from ____?
    A combination of organic and inorganic components
  115. Synovial fluid functions as ____?
    An excellent lubricant
  116. The nutrtion of bone tissue is dependent on
    Nutrient foramina, Volkmann's canals, Haversian cannals, and Canaliculi
  117. The number of bones in vertebrate animals has ____?
    decreased in some kinds, such as mammals
  118. Red marrow is found extensively _____?
    between trabeculae in cancellous bone
  119. White or yellow marrow is found commonly in _____?
    Medullary canals
  120. When two bones are considered homologus it means that they are____?
    are connected to the same adjacent bones and other structures such as vessels, muscles and nerves and are derived from the same phylogenetic origin
  121. The primary difference bettween synarthotic and diarthotic articulation is ___?
    Mobility and the presence of a synovial capsule
  122. Osteoperosis is more common in older women than in older men because
    women are subject to testosterone and estrogen shortages in old age,
  123. The reason that intervertebral disks exibit a large amount of tensile strength and absorbs shock is because they posses ____?
    Collagen fibers
  124. Which statement describes connetive tissue?
    Usually contains a large amount of matrix
  125. Multicellular execrrine glands can be classified ___?
    Into merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine kinds?
  126. Epithelial tissue ____?
    have one of the surfaces exposed to the exterior of the body or body cavity
  127. When preapring tissues for sectioning so they can be examined histologically , the tissues are commonly____?
    inundated by hot molten wax, exposed to many water-soluble chemicals that stain tissue, dehydrated by passing through multiple changes of alcohol of increasing strength, and immeresed in a fixing solution that causes permanent changes to protein structure
  128. Tissue is _____?
    An association of cells, and non-living cell products that work together to perform one or more functions
  129. In glands that are said to be merrocrine in their secretory mechanism____?
    None of the above
  130. Adipose tissue can be recognized histologically because ___?
    of its large vacuoles filled with lipids
  131. Hyaline cartilage can be recognized visually because of___?
    Its ability to allow much light through most of its mass making it translucent
  132. The most abundant kind of epidermal cell is___?
  133. Embryonic germ layers make up the entire body of _____?
    Very early embryos
  134. A structural protein that is important in nearly all specific kinds of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone is ___?
  135. In which layer of the skin are you most likely to find large numbers of cells undergoing mitosis?
    stratum basale (germinativum)
  136. What is the function of Merkel cells?
    Epidermal sensory input
  137. The fibers found in connective tissue ____?
    Occur extra cellularly, are not alive, include collagen and elastic and reticular fibers
  138. Most glands of the body are composed largely of ____?
    epithelial tissues
  139. A synonym for an endocrine gland is___?
    A ductless gland
  140. The science that relies largely on the light microscope and the electron microscope to study the structure of tissues is ____?
  141. Transitional epithelium _____?
    is found in the urinary tract
  142. The actual respiratory membrane where respiratory gasses are significantly exchanged with blood occur ___?
    in the walls of the alveoli
  143. The diagnostic characteristic of a respiratory bronchiole is ____?
    it has attached alveoli
  144. Air can pass directly frome on alveoli to antoher through _____?
    Alveolar pores
  145. Endocrine glands that are dependent on the arrival of other hormones to insure the secretion of certain hormones are ___?
  146. Two endocrine glands that are involved in calcium regulation are ____?
    Thyroid and parathyroid
  147. The function of cillia on the epithelium of the lining of the respiratory tract is primarily to______?
    provide a moving coat of mucus on epithelial surfaces
  148. The direction followed by particles adhering to respiratory muscus found within the nasopharnyx is___?
    Up towards the glottis
  149. Pulmonary surfactant is important in _____?
    Proper lung function in newborns through old age
  150. The chemical content found in lung aveoli is mostly___?
  151. Breathing movements is largely controlled by the ____?
    Medulla oblongata
  152. The name for the layer covering the lungs is ___?
    Visceral pleura
  153. Pulmonary surfactant is manufactured in____?
    The walls of the alveoli
  154. The larynx ___?
    is composed of various cartilagnous plates that are connected to one another , often with moveable synovial joints
  155. Bile's role is to assist digestion by ___?
    emulsifying fats
  156. Bile is___?
    manufactured in the liver
  157. In the common bile duct, bile flows directly from the?
    None of the above
  158. Digestion and absorption are two processes in the digestive system that___?
    Both occur in the stomach and intestines, and both are essential to delivering nutrients throughout the body
  159. The pancreas_____?
    Manufactures digestive enzymes that are delivered to the small intestine, and manufactures general metabolic hormones.
  160. The islets of Langerhans are____?
    Groups of hormone producing cells found in the pancreas