HIST 105 Final Exam Notecards

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HIST 105 Final Exam Notecards
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  1. Who succeeded Henry II?
    His son, King Richard I (Lionheart)
  2. Who was King Richard's I (Lionheart) father?
    Henry II
  3. Why did King Richard I (Lionheart, son of Henry II, spend less than 1 year total is England?
    he was always off on crusades
  4. In what way/reason did King Richard (Lionheart) reach epic proportion in the modern world?
    Because of his role in Robin Hood and Ivan Ho
  5. What is King Richard's nickname?
    Lionheart
  6. Who is nicknamed Lionheart?
    King Richard I (son of Henry I)
  7. How did King Richard I (Lionheart) die?
    Walked across field during war and was hit in the shoulder with an arrow that had been dipped in cow manure
  8. Who followed King Richard I (Lionheart) as king?
    King John
  9. How/why was King John turned into a notorious figure in modern times?
    Because of his role in Robin Hood
  10. What Robin Hood true or legend?
    Legend
  11. What is the magna carta?
    Document that was supposed to limit the power of the king with regard to personal liberties (didn't influence American founders much). King John was forced by the English nobles to sign this.
  12. Whom was forced to sign the magna carta and by whom?
    King John forced by the English Nobles
  13. Document that was supposed to limit the power of the king with regard to personal liberties (didn't influence American founders much). King John was forced by the English nobles to sign this.
    Magna Carta
  14. Why did the Magna Carta probably not influence the founding fathers of America?
    Because the document was lost after signed by John and kings ended up getting stronger anyways. Only gave tribute to rights for a select/elite few of English Society
  15. Despite the Magna Carta, the _____________ survived.
    Monarch
  16. What did future kings knowingly dismiss?
    The signing of the Magna Carta
  17. Who inherited a really strong, secure kingdom from his grandfather, Phillip Augustus?
    King Louie (9th)
  18. King Louie (9th) inherited a really strong secure kingdom from his grandfather, ______________________.
    Phillip Augustus
  19. Was was the general consensus about King Louie (9th), grandson of Phillip Augustus?
    Very pyas, religious and moral man (his rule-monarchy- was a bit boring)
  20. King Louie's (9th) success, grandson of Phillip Augustus, was based mostly off of what?
    What he did domestically - demolished serfdom, equitable tax system
  21. Whose success was based mostly on only what he did domestically - demolished serfdom, equitable tax system
    King Louie (9th)
  22. What did King Louie (9th) do, domestically, that his success was based from?
    demolished serfdom, equitable tax system
  23. Who died of a fever on crusades?
    King Louie (9th) - grandson of Phillip Augustus
  24. How did King Louie die?
    Fever while on crusades
  25. What does it mean to be canonized? Whom was this done to while he was alive?
    To be declared a saint - King Louie (saint Louie)
  26. What situation was rare to happen to monarchs?
    Being canonized while still alive
  27. Whom represents a week point in authority (because he was between two towering figures/rulers)?
    King (Saint) Louie (9th)
  28. What is it important that both England and France have strong/stable monarchies in place at the same time?
    Because at this time, England controlled many territories in France - this sets the stage for a rivalry between them (culminate in the 100 year war)
  29. 2 very strong monarchies (English and French) develop at the same time - this will culminate in what?
    The 100 Year War
  30. Holy Roman Empire was not later unified until when?
    Until it becomes the modern state of Germany (in 19th century)
  31. What is something that would have never been done if you lived in Italy at this time?
    Identified yourself as an Italian
  32. What was Barbosa's title?
    Holy Roman Emperor
  33. What was one of HRE Barbosa's goals? How did he help bring this into fruition?
    Really wanted an alliance between them and Italy. He arranged marriage between his son, Henry (VI), and Constance (heiress to Cicely).
  34. What was the issue of Henry VI taking his father's, Barbosa, spot as HRE?
    HRE wasn't recognized or supported by the Pope so his legitimacy was not "official"
  35. Whom did HRE Barbosa arrange for his son, Henry (VI), to marry?
    Constance (heiress to Cicely)
  36. Why did HRE Barbosa arrange the marriage of his son, Henry (VI), and Constance?
    Because she was the heiress to Cicely and he had a goal of an alliance with Italy
  37. Battle of Bouvinnes?
    Struggle over who was going to be Holy Roman Emperor (after Barbosa - the time that HRE wasn't officially recognized by the Pope)
  38. Whom was the Battle of Bouvinnes mostly between?
    English and French
  39. Who loses all the land back to France during the Battle of Bouvinnes?
    King John (lackland)
  40. For what reasons was King John nicknamed "Lackland"?
    only ended up ruling small part of Ireland and ended up losing all of French territory (in Bat. Of Bouv.)
  41. What turned out to be "the best thing that ever happened to England" and why?
    the loss of their French territories at the Battle of Bouvinnes
  42. Who wins in the end of the Battle of Bouvinnes and what was the major advantage to them at the end?
    French won - with it came the regained control over all of their land that had been under English control (all but Calais and Aquataine)
  43. How did England inevitably lose all of their French territory back to France (all but Calais and Aquataine)?
    By losing the Battle of Bouvinnes to them
  44. Even though HRE Barbosa was successful with arranging his son's marriage to help his goal of an alliance with Italy, what stood in his was?
    The Pope did not support it.
  45. Why did Barbosa want an alliance with Italy?
    Because it was the most rapidly expanding trade center in Europe and wanted presence their.
  46. Henry (VI) and Constance (heiress to Cicely) had a child named _____________.
    Frederick
  47. What came with the Capetian Dynasty?
    For 3 centuries, there was an unbroken succession of son following father as successor
  48. What is the Capetian Dynasty and whom did it start with?
    A new dynasty in France - started by Hugh Capet
  49. Otto of Brunswick
    who the English support to become HRE instead of Frederick II (HRE Barbosa's son)
  50. Even though there was only an issue in determining who would become HRE after Barbosa, why did this turn into the Battle of Bouvinnes?
    Otto of Brunswick had prevailed with his support from France and because of the rivalry that still existed between England and France, this became a debate between them
  51. Before the Battle of Bouvinnes, when selecting who to be HRE, who supported which candidate?
    French supported Frederick II and English supported Otto of Brunswick
  52. During whose rule did the Hohenstaufen Dynasty start?
    Frederick I Barbarossa (HRE)
  53. What started to be done after the Hohenstaufen Dynasty?
    HRE began to be elected and the college of cardinals was set in place for the determination of this position
  54. How were the HRE's elected starting after the Hohenstaufen Dynasty?
    The local nobles/princes elected them
  55. Who gets to renegotiate their power each time they are elected?
    HRE
  56. Which king was in rule during the "real" beginning of England becoming independent?
    Edward Longshanks
  57. What was Edward Longshanks' (grandson of King John) nickname and where has he been depicted in recent times?
    He was called the hammer of the scots and he was the king in braveheart
  58. Whom had an obsession with subduing Scotland (and controlling the Scots)?
    King Edward I Longshanks
  59. What did King Edward I Longshanks seem to have an obsession with?
    Controlling and subduing Scotland
  60. King John's grandson was _________________
    Edward I Longshanks
  61. Edward I Longshanks was the grandson of ______________
    King John
  62. Who was responsible for calling the First Model Parliament (1295)?
    Edward I Longshanks (grandson of King John)
  63. Which people gave Edward I the name of "Longshanks" and why was this?
    English and because he was very tall (well over 6')
  64. Where did the tradition of first son of Monarch being called "Prince of Wails" come from?
    Edward I Longshanks conquered Wails and it started there.
  65. Who conquered Wails and what did this start?
    Edward I Longshanks started the tradition of first son of Monarch being called "Prince of Wails"
  66. Who became king after Edward I Longshanks died?
    Edward II - his son
  67. Edward II became king upon whose death?
    His father, Edward I Longshanks
  68. Whom did Edward II (son of Longshanks) marry and who was she the daughter of?
    Married woman named Isabella - daughter of King Phillip IV the Fair (not from looks)
  69. Who stole the stone of Scone? Where was it stolen from? Where did it wind up?
    King Edward I Longshanks - stole from Scotland - he placed it under coronation chair in Westminster Abbey
  70. Which King of England was shown to be homosexual and ended up being killed by his wife Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer?
    Edward II
  71. What did Edward II become known as?
    Hotrod
  72. Who became known as hotrod?
    Edward II
  73. What do we know that happened after Edward II had been murdered by his wife, Isabella, and her lover Mortimer?
    Edward II and Isabella's "sons" had become king and put Mortimer (his actual father) do death and his mother in prison forever and never saw her again.
  74. During whose reign did the 100 Year War begin?
    Edward III
  75. How was Edward III (King of England) entitled to the throne of France? Why was he initially not awarded this? What did this cause?
    His mother, Isabella, was the daughter of King Phillip the Fair of France. Not awarded throne because as far as France is concerned, it cannot pass through female side. Edward waged war on France that lead to the 100 Year War
  76. What triggers the 100 Year War?
    Edward waged war on France because they awarded their throne to another member of the Capesian family and overlooked Edward They said it could not be passed down through female's side.
  77. What were the three major advantages the French had at the beginning of the 100 Year War?
    more people, more money and most major battles were fought on French soil
  78. What happened despite France's early advantages? What was this due to?
    English ended up winning all major battles because of their military superiority (in the form of longbow)
  79. What specifically led to England having military superiority in the beginning of the 100YR war? How did this come about?
    The use of longbow - when Edward became king, he made each village have archery green - all boys had to begin training. By time of war, England had a vast amount of skilled archers
  80. What made the difference in the beginning of the 100YR war for English?
    Their great military superiority
  81. What was the average firing rate and distance for skilled English archers? What did this do to the effectiveness of the arrows?
    Fire up to 6 times per minute and were deadly accurate up to 200 yards (accurate up to 400 yards) - arrows could pierce armor at these distances
  82. What is tradition that the person does if he were to become pope?
    He takes on the name of a saint
  83. What began the tradition of Popes taking a saints name when he became pope?
    Started with pope named mercury- they changed his name so that he wouldn't have name of Pagan God - continued on in tradition
  84. What did Popes Gregory and Innocent have in common?
    They believed they could interfere with secular affairs.
  85. What was one of Innocent's most quoted statements?
    Pope is sun and emperor is moon - statement
  86. Who made the statement that the Pope is the sun and that the emperor is the moon?
    Pope Innocent
  87. What can be used interchangeably during the middle ages?
    King and emperor
  88. What two famous occasions did Pope Innocent show that he believes he is more powerful than the emperor?
    Used Papal Interdict and instituted Peter's Pence
  89. What is Papal Interdict?
    To suspend certain religious practices - applies to entire country of people
  90. (as an example) When he was mad, what did Innocent do to try and make THRE John see his way?
    Issued papal interdict on all the people of France
  91. Why does Innocent issue papal interdict on France?
    He wants the people of France to rebel on their King (John) to force him to see his way
  92. How did Papal Interdict affect the people it was issued on?
    They couldn't get married, buried, baptized, receive last rights of church.
  93. As we constantly see from history, what is it that you never do?
    Interfere with people's religion
  94. By saying Pope Innocent frequently got involved with secular affairs, he frequently did what?
    Intervened in power of the state
  95. Under who did the papacy grow in power?
    Pope Innocent
  96. What is Peter's pence and who instituted it?
    A tax to be implemented on the church and other leaders - Pope Innocent
  97. How does the church begin to act while under Pope Innocent?
    Like a monarch
  98. Under whom does the church begin to act like a monarch?
    Pope Innocent
  99. What was the tax on bishops and clergy called?
    Annates
  100. What is annates and who instituted it?
    a tax placed on bishops and clergy by Pope Innocent
  101. What was the reason that Innocent issued Papal Interdict on the people of France to get them to rebel against King John?
    It was over a man that John wanted to be archbishop - they got in an argument over it.
  102. How did the Papal Interdict affect King Phillip?
    He wanted to get divorced and marry someone else but was not allowed to
  103. Who were the only ones who really had to pay Innocent in the Annates? Why?
    Bishops mainly because they were the only ones who really owned land and state and had an income
  104. Innocent in notorious for ordering what?
    Crusades against the Albigensians
  105. Who were the Albigensians?
    Section of people who opposed traditional Christian teaching
  106. Where did the Albigensians get their name?
    Their heresy originated from an area of France known as Albi (even though they are not all from there)
  107. In what ways did the Albigensians oppose traditional Christian teachings?
    They denied God from Old Testament as the same god in the New Testament incarnate in Jesus. And there was an extreme sect of these people that preached to stop procreating by practicing abstaining from sex, abortion and infanticide
  108. Why did the Albigensians believe that babies should stop being born?
    They believed every time a baby is born, a new immortal soul enters the world.
  109. What put the Albigensians on Innocent's radar and what did he do because of this?
    They preached abstaining from sex, abortion and infanticide - he ordered a crusade on them.
  110. Who ordered a crusade on the Albigensians?
    Pope Innocent
  111. In dealing with the crusade against the Albigensians, what is the popular quote from Innocent?
    "Kill them all, God will find his own"
  112. Who finished up the massacres against the Albigensians and by what did he do this?
    Pope Gregory (9th) - he established the holy office of the inquisition
  113. Who established the holy office of the inquisition and what was it?
    Pope Gregory (9th) - full tribunal court to try cases of heresy
  114. Where/How does the Holy Office of the Inquisition exist today?
    Operates at the Vatican and is now called the CDF (congregation of the doctrine of faith) - it keeps tabs on teachings to keep everyone on same page
  115. How were people arranged to be killed if they were found guilty of heresy by the Holy Office of the Inquisition?
    They were handed over to secular authority to be killed
  116. What doctrine was named by the Fourth Lateran Council and what is it?
    Doctrine of Transubstantiation - it means the change of bread and wine into actual body and blood of Christ.
  117. What doctrine is the most frequently assaulted in the church?
    Doctrine of Transubstantiation
  118. What does the word Transubstantiation mean?
    "A change in substance"
  119. In what way can an "apology" be given for the doctrine of transubstantiation?
    For the first time, Aristotle writings were brought back to the West (by crusaders) and they were able to incorporate Aristotelian thinking into the church.
  120. Transubstantiation is a great example of what type of thinking?
    Aristotelian (no longer abstract - it is now real)
  121. Who is St. Francis?
    Patron Saint of Animals - Found new order of monks called Franciscans
  122. What background do we have about St. Francis and what happened?
    Came from town in Italy (Assisi), from wealthy/popular trading family. Had everything, partied/promiscuous. He had a conversion and started giving away his possessions. Parents brought Bishop to intervene, Francis stripped down naked and left the house saying that he would make it so that he had nothing that belonged to his father.
  123. What did St. Francis say to his father when he took off all of his clothes and left their house naked?
    I now have nothing of you going out into the world.
  124. St. Francis began an order of monks that were dedicated to what?
    Poverty
  125. What made St. Francis different from monks of that time?
    He lived among the people preaching and teaching (not in a monastery)
  126. What had St. Francis received by the end of his life and why is this believed to be "true"?
    stigmata - because this, along with the rest of his life, was well documented by people around him.
  127. What attracted the churches attention to St. Francis?
    That he had received the stigmata and that he could supposedly communicate with animals.
  128. Whom is Innocent contrasted with to get an idea of how corruption at the high level of the church did not necessarily mean it was happening at the lower/basic levels?
    St. Francis
  129. When/why did Innocent meet St. Francis for the first time and what happened?
    Francis traveled to Rome to get approval for new group. When Pope Innocent entered the room, St. Francis dropped to the floor. Innocent picked him up and told him that he should be bowing to him. Innocent was very humble to St. Francis.
  130. What does the way Innocent acted towards St. Francis when they met say about him?
    He probably knew that he was not as holy as St. Francis or he wasn't as holy as he could/should be.
  131. What is St. Dominic known for?
    Practicing mortification of the flesh/beating himself - he almost beat himself to death on at least one occasion
  132. Who was known for practicing mortification of the flesh?
    St. Dominic
  133. What proceeded to be more important than St. Dominic? Why?
    The order he founded, Dominicans, went on to be responsible for the Spanish Inquisition.
  134. What did old mystics (including St. Dominic) do to imitate Christ?
    Mortification of the flesh
  135. Who was the most famous Dominican (not St. Dominic)?
    St. Thomas Aquinas
  136. What was St. Thomas Aquinas known as being?
    The patron saint of learning and tests.
  137. What two orders have we learned about and who founded them?
    Franciscans (St. Francis) and Dominicans (St. Dominic)
  138. What was it called the high middle ages?
    Because of the church is at it's peak of power and it is when we see the rise of universities
  139. What was the main scenario that was going on during the late Middle Ages?
    Period of transition
  140. Where was there a very strong monarchy?
    England and France
  141. Bubonic Plague
    a stereotypical picture of the Middle Ages. One of the best things that could have happened to Europe at this time
  142. Who/what had a large variety of different groups
    many imperial figures could centralize power again
  143. What were some generalities of the Holy Roman Empire when it was not yet Germany?
    had a large variety of different groups
  144. Who was one of the strongest figures (emperors) to come out of the Holy Roman Empire?
    Otto I
  145. What made Pope John (12th) switch sides to the Italians?
    Pope John was being bullied by Italians that wanted the papal states back (from Pepin). Otto rushes to protect the Pope with an army. Otto calls himself the protector of the Pope. Pope doesn't like looking like he is dependent on the Emperor to protect him, so he switches sides to the Italians against Otto.
  146. What does Otto do after Pope John Paul switches sides to the Italians?
    Otto assembles meeting of all his bishops, they depose Pope John (12th).
  147. What does 'to depose' mean?
    To remove from office
  148. What went on for a short period of time after Otto removed Pope John Paul (12th) from office?
    No pope could be elected and hold office without the approval of the holy roman emperor.
  149. What do we know about the Cluny Movement?
    It began in monastery in France. Monks didn't believe in the emperor should be able to manipulate the church. They wanted to get the church back to the basics.
  150. What were some results of the Cluny Movement because of the influence of Cluny monks?
    Many new church decrees: peace of god - threatened ex-communicated to anyone who harmed to innocence of society
  151. What was the significance of the Cluny Monks making a decree to excommunicate anyone who harmed the innocence of society?
    it was a direct social reflection of what is going on in the church - chivalry
  152. Who were the innocence of society?
    women, clergy and children
  153. What was the truce of god?
    Abstain from war on Sabbath and season of lent
  154. What was the point of the truce of god?
    The church was trying to re-order society starting from the basics
  155. What do we know about what kind of person the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV was?
    "badass" - very forceful personality, never wrong, going to have everything his way.
  156. Who was Emperor Henry IV's rival?
    Pope Gregory VII
  157. Who was Pope Gregory VII's rival
    Emperor Henry IV
  158. Who was one of the strongest most forceful popes in history?
    Pope Gregory VII
  159. Pope Gregory VII was strong and forceful in the __________ sense and Emperor Henry IV in the __________ sense.
    Spiritual - other
  160. What do we know about Pope Gregory VII's past?
    He was one of the Cluny monks.
  161. As soon as Gregory became pope, he became what?
    Henry's mirror image (similar personalities)
  162. What was the main controversy called between the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII?
    The lay investiture struggle/controversy
  163. What is the staff called that the bishops were given?
    Crosier (aka shepherd's hook)
  164. What is a crosier?
    The staff that bishops were given when he was invested.
  165. What was the metaphor of the crosier and the bishop?
    (aka shepherd's hook) the bishop as a shepherd of the flock (people)
  166. What were the steps in becoming bishop?
    Concentration and investiture
  167. What is investiture of the bishop?
    When they were invested with the visible signs of his office - crosier, ring and miter-pointed hat
  168. What is consecration?
    When three other bishops come and lay hands on him - believed that they are conveying the same authority to him that was given to them (past down from the apostles)
  169. What is the investiture of the bishops considered?
    Secular - not necessarily religious
  170. Why did the kings/emperors believe it was ok for them to invest the bishops?
    It seemed as though a secular act - not religious - so they thought it was within their authority to do it.
  171. Why did the kings/emperors initially have to stop investing bishops?
    Pope Gregory makes lay investiture illegal by anyone else other than him. He threatened to ex-communicate anyone who was involved with that.
  172. What happened after Pope Gregory ruled lay investiture illegal?
    Emperor Henry IV felt threatened by this, assembled bishops in a place called Worms, made them make a choice between him or the pope, and wrote a letter to the pope stating that he is not obeying him and will invest anyone he wants.
  173. What happened after Emperor Henry IV wrote Pope Gregory telling him that he was going to invest whomever he wanted to?
    Pope Gregory ex-communicated the emperor - he also issued a papal decree to all the people who lived in German states saying that they are released from their scriptural duty to obey their emperor
  174. Why was Emperor Henry IV forced to go make peace with the Pope?
    There was no open rebellion against him in the German states because of Pope releasing all the people from under Henry's rule
  175. What was the entire/rest of the story starting when Emperor Henry decided to go make peace with Pope Gregory?
    henry traveled to pope's castle in Italy, laid faced down in snow wearing only a hairshirt for 3 days begging pope's forgiveness. Pope forgave henry and welcome him back into church. Henry goes back to Roman Empire and began investing bishops again. Pope ex-communicates him again. Henry now took army to Rome, took out pope put in a new pope.
  176. What was the main/general issue between the Pope/church and Emperors/Kings of the middle ages?
    Power -who was more powerful, the church or the kings/emperors?
  177. Describe how all power through medieval times was considered "divine".
    the general view was that all power must flow through the hierarchy of the church. Any power a person had was considered to have been "god given"
  178. What type of authority did the Pope and the Emperor both think they had?
    Secular and spiritual power/authority
  179. What is the concordat of Worms?
    Settlement that the church and state reached saying that the king/emperor may appoint or recommend a bishop, but the church will invest them
  180. Whom did the Byzantine Empire come under increasing pressure from (gradual encroachment)?
    The Muslim Turks
  181. What were the reasons why Pope Urban II called for the first (great) crusade?
    Byzantine empire came under gradual encroachment by the Muslim Turks. Once the Holy Land fell completely to Islam and it started to affect the Christian pilgrims.
  182. What was the first crusade?
    Pope Urban II called for a crusade to the Holy Land to free them from the control of Islam.
  183. What has recently been considered as a possible motivation for Pope Urban II to call for a crusade to the holy land?
    To reunite eastern and western Europe under one common goal.
  184. Which parts of Europe were impervious to Islam and which part encountered it much more ("on the edge")?
    Western Europe was impervious to Islam. Eastern Europe encountered it much more (on the edge).
  185. When Islam had control of the holy land, what was the general agreement that kept away the need for battle or intervention?
    Christian pilgrims had been able to come to Jerusalem to worship, without any interference by Islam
  186. Which crusade was probably the only one that was genuinely religiously motivated?
    The first one on the holy land by Pope Urban II
  187. Which crusades are the ones that most historians agree about? Why?
    the first four - there are so many more, there is much debate over the rest. These are the only "important" ones because of their impact on history.
  188. First crusade involved what king of crusaders?
    Christian
  189. What did Pope Urban II promise to the Christian crusaders?
    He promised the Christian crusaders that they would win themselves imperishable glory (last forever). Anyone that is killed in crusade would not have to go to purgatory or hell.
  190. What was the outcome of the first crusades?
    It was a success and Jerusalem was now occupied by the Christian crusaders.
  191. What was an issue that was not thought about until after the success of the first crusades?
    That after the Christian crusaders gained control of the holy land, someone would need to stay and protect it from any other invaders.
  192. What arose due to the need of the protection of the holy land after the success of the first crusade?
    Medieval fortresses that were built in the holy land were built and protected by the knights Templar
  193. What happened because the knight's Templar got too powerful?
    The pope and the king got together and disbanded them (some where burned alive)
  194. What was one of the jobs of the knights Templar (this helped them get very rich)?
    They could be hired by Christian pilgrims traveling to and from the holy land as guides and protectors.
  195. What was the significance of the knights Templar being disbanded?
    One of the first times that the pope and king worked together for one cause
  196. What was one of the norms for the churches during the medieval times?
    It was the churches business to get involved in everyone else's business
  197. Where were the living quarters for the knights Templar built?
    They were built on old Solomon's temple
  198. Why did the knights Templar use the name "Templar"?
    because their living quarters was build on old king Solomon's temple
  199. When were the knights Templar unable to hold the holy land from invasion?
    The second crusade
  200. Who was involved in the start of the second crusade?
    It was lead by Roman emperor Conrad III and French King Louie 7th.
  201. What was the point of the second crusade?
    To reclaim the holy land
  202. What was significant about the second crusade being lead by Roman emperor Conrad III and French King Louie 7th?
    It wasn't lead by the pope - only sanctioned by the church
  203. What happened when Conrad and Lewie left to go reclaim the holy land during the second crusade?
    They were basically defeated on the way to the holy land. They never reached Jerusalem before they came home - it was not successful.
  204. What was also interested about the second crusade and Eleanor of Aquitaine?
    She lead other women to battle bare breasted.
  205. Who took back the holy city for the Muslims that contributed the reason for the third crusade?
    Saladine
  206. What was one of the reasons that lead to the third crusade?
    When Saladine (sultan from Egypt) took back over holy city for Islam
  207. Which crusade was said to involve "celebrities"? Who where they?
    third crusade - involved Frederick Barbossa, King Richard of England (Lionheart), and Phillip Augustus of France.
  208. What was the fatal flaw of Frederick Barabossa?
    he was a raging alcoholic
  209. Why was King Richard of England named "Lionheart"?
    he was known for his courage and bravery - loved battle
  210. What do we know about King of England's family?
    He was one of the sons of Eleanor of Aquitaine with Henry II
  211. Who was one of the sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine?
    Frederick Barbossa
  212. Why do we assume Phillip Augustus (of France) had a large ego?
    Because he named himself "Augustus"
  213. Even though Phillip Augustus, Barbossa and Lionheart (Richard) were all supposed to put their differences aside during their attempt at the third crusade, what were the main issues that arose during this time between each of them (rest of the story)?
    Philip and Richard had sexual relationship. Barbarossa was an alcoholic, fell off horse drunk and drowned in 5" if water. Richard and Phillip watched and did not help. Philip and Richard reached outskirts of Jerusalem and turned armies on each other. On way back, Richard was kidnapped and held for ransom by agents of Phillip.
  214. What is the overall outcome after the first, second and third crusades?
    Terks still had control of Jerusalem (Muslims)
  215. What good came out of the crusades?
    Trade and commerce increased, increase in knowledge of the rest of the world, improvements in warfare, siegecraft.
  216. Push of new trade routes throughout medieval times lead to what?
    What we have today
  217. The fourth crusade turned out to be what?
    A solely commercialized fiasco
  218. The fourth crusade was directed by what?
    The church
  219. Which crusade was the final one to be directed by the church?
    The fourth one
  220. Who preached the fourth crusade?
    Pope innocent III
  221. Give the general story of the fourth crusade (beginning to end).
    Preached by pope innocent III, army assembled in Venice and they realized they were short of cash. They made deal with group of venetian merchants to transport them across Mediterranean to Constantinople. Agreed to conquer Constantinople and make one of the Venetian merchants emperor. They never made it to the holy land
  222. Who did the crusaders of the fourth crusade bargain with to get across the Mediterranean?
    Venetian merchants
  223. From what did the legend of the pied-piper come from?
    The children's crusades - a legend of shepherd named Stephen
  224. Contrary to popular legend, what was the crusades NOT about?
    Finding the holy grail.
  225. Out of what comes the legend of King Author and the Round Table?
    The legend of the holy grail
  226. What makes the legend of the holy grail pervasive in English culture?
    England says that Joseph of Arimathea visited there. It was said that Joseph of Arimathea (the one who gave his tomb for jesus) was given the responsibility of keeping the Holy Grail.
  227. Who is noted to have (among other things) influenced the thinking of the church from the thirteenth century forward? Through what way of thinking did this begin?
    Saint Thomas Aquinas - Thomism
  228. What is Thomism?
    Theological way of thinking
  229. Who developed Thomism and what is it known to have influenced starting in the 13th century?
    St. Thomas Aquinas - influenced the thinking of the church
  230. What did Saint Thomas Aquinas try to do through his way of thinking, Thomism?
    Reconcile faith and reason
  231. What was Saint Thomas Aquinas' argument towards faith and human reason complementing each other instead of contradicting each other?
    That reason proves the existence of god so they do not conflict
  232. For what important aspect/reason did we stop to talk about the Franciscan and Dominican orders?
    They were the first orders in the church that did not involve living behind monastery walls
  233. What else do we call the Franciscan and Dominican orders?
    Mendicant orders
  234. Mendicant orders
    different (ordained) religious orders in which they are considered "beggars" by depending on people to feed them and supply a place to live
  235. What effect did Mendicant orders have on the church as a whole?
    strengthens the church because it was attractive to people not to have to live in monastery
  236. What started to attract people to the church during the time of the Franciscans/Dominicans? Why?
    mendicant orders - it was attractive to people not to have to live in monastery
  237. Which religious groups were considered "beggars" and lived off the streets?
    Mendicant orders
  238. What did the mendicant orders really focus on as religious groups?
    Teaching and preaching
  239. In what areas do we specifically study seeing the rise of true monarchy around the time of Norman?
    Places such as England and France (specifically)
  240. What historic event takes place in 1066 regarding Norman the conqueror?
    The Norman conquest of England
  241. What was the main generality to know when talking about England before the Norman Conquest?
    England was a Saxon kingdom
  242. What popular Germanic tribes/people migrated into England (what is now Brittan) during the collapse of Roman authority who then went on to play a major role in Europe and American history?
    Saxons and Angles
  243. Under what great king did the Angles and Saxons establish a strong presence in what is now Brittan after the collapse of Roman authority?
    King Alfred the Great
  244. King Alfred the Great
    king under which the Angles and Saxons established a strong presence in what is now Brittan after the collapse of Roman authority
  245. What happened even though Edward the Confessor was Saxon at birth?
    He spent a lot of time in Normandy (Northern France)
  246. Where is Normandy located?
    Northern France
  247. What king was very religious (and pious)?
    King Edward the Confessor (Saxon king)
  248. Where did the Angles and Saxons come from?
    Anglii and Saxony - two Germanic cities/tribes
  249. Through whom did we get our language - English?
    The Angles
  250. What tongue did the Angles speak which eventually transformed into our language?
    Englesk
  251. Edward the Confessor is today known as what?
    Saint Edward the Confessor
  252. Where did Edward the Confessor spend a lot of his youth?
    Normandy (northern France)
  253. What is the importance of Edward the Confessor spending a lot of time from his youth in Normandy?
    He apparently got to know the Duke of Normandy, William the Bastard and promised him the thrown of England.
  254. Whom did Edward the Confessor apparently promise the thrown of England to?
    Duke of Normandy, William the Bastard
  255. Who is the Duke of Normandy that supposedly was promised the thrown of England by Edward the Confessor?
    William the Bastard (of Normandy)
  256. What is the reason behind the name 'Normandy'?
    the people were Norseman/Vikings/horseman
  257. Whom are the Vikings considered "the same people" with?
    Saxons
  258. Whom are the Saxons considered "the same people" with?
    Vikings and Angles
  259. In what ways/what was the reason are the Vikings and Saxons considered the same/very similar people?
    They lived in close proximity to each other
  260. Being that Saxons and Vikings are very similar people (if not mostly the same), who are the Saxon's now considered very similar to? Why?
    Norseman's because they are basically all Vikings/dependents.
  261. Why is Edward the Saxon King of England called the confessor?
    Once Edward became King and them got married, he then announced he was taking vow of celibacy so there would be no children
  262. What was the underlying cause of the battle of Hastings?
    King Edward the Confessor took vow of celibacy so he had no heirs to thrown. He supposedly promised thrown to the Duke of Normandy (William the Bastard). When it came time, the Saxons picked Harold Godwinson to be next as King bypassing Edward the Confessor and what he claimed
  263. Who had the Saxons picked to be then new King of England instead of picking William the Bastard who'd been promised it by King Edward?
    Harold Godwinson
  264. Harold Godwinson
    new King of England that the Saxons picked instead of William the Bastard who'd been promised it by King Edward
  265. What is the full story of what happened when the throne of England was given to Harold Godwinson and Edward the Confessor died?
    William the Bastard (Duke of Normandy) invaded England. During fight, Harold assumed high ground (Senlac) and William knew he needed to win fast. Because of this, the Duke started sending suicide raids up hill towards Harold. Somehow, both Harold and his brother ended up dead and for an unknown reason, their army ended up broking rank.
  266. What happened the next morning after the battle of Hastings?
    William woke up and realized all Saxons had left and he ended up becoming William the first of England
  267. What was the Battle of Hastings?
    William the Bastard (Duke of Normandy) invaded England and it's newly picked King, Harold Godwinson because the Saxons did not give the throne to him (as promised by Edw. Conf.)
  268. What is the fight called between William the Bastard and the Harold Godwin
    Battle of Hastings
  269. Who named the high ground from the battle of Hastings, Senlac?
    The Saxons
  270. What is the high ground from the battle of Hastings called? What does it mean?
    Senlac (lake of blood)
  271. Who outnumbers who during the battle of Hastings?
    William outnumbered Harold
  272. At what specific time did William the Bastard (conqueror) become William the first King of England?
    on Christmas day
  273. Concerning William the bastard's name, what changed?
    "the Conqueror" was added
  274. When William of Normandy became King of England, what was he called by?
    William I of England (the first) - aka conqueror/bastard
  275. What is the Domesday book?
    A full inventory (not census) of what he ruled - count of people, animals, possessions, etc. He sent people from village to collect information (took 5 years)
  276. How long did it take to compile the Domesday Book?
    5 years
  277. What is the importance of the Domesday book?
    At the time, it gave him a great idea of what he had and what he could tax on. It gave us the best information on the people of those times and the living conditions.
  278. What period in history was the beginning of the Norman Conquest?
    When William of Normandy (bastard) - a Norman - defeated Harold Godwin at the battle of Hastings and became King of England.
  279. Since the Saxons and Normans were basically considered the "same thing", why was it such a big deal when the Normans took control of England from Saxon rule?
    The King of England is now also the Duke of Normandy (and because technically the Normans are French), which means that (as the Duke), he is a vassal under the King of France. This starts a huge rivalry between English Kings and French Kings.
  280. What was the main situation that lead into a huge rivalry between French Kings and English Kings?
    When William of Normandy became King of England & Duke of Normandy, he was immediately in a position under the French King.
  281. What was arguably the origin of the "100 Year War"?
    The struggle for equal/more power between the King of France and King of England. Started when William of Normandy became King of England and was now a vassal under the French king because of his new Duke title.
  282. When it "boils down to it," what was a main area of issue between the English Kings and French Kings when the rivalry began?
    Relationship between Normandy and English King
  283. Because of the relationship between Normandy and the English King (along with his title Duke of Normandy), what does this eventually lead to?
    The king of England having more control in territory than the King of France did.
  284. What did William seen to not do too much of while in reign?
    He did not change the government much
  285. What is an example of a local Saxon system that William left alone when he became king of England? What was it?
    Shire Reeve - the "Sheriff"
  286. Local Saxon system that worked and was kept by William
    most powerful of their office level of the Shire Reed (King's man - Sheriff) will see that sheriff becomes one of most powerful positions in England.
  287. What is the Shire Reeve?
    an example of a local Saxon system that William left alone when he became king of England - it housed the Sheriff who becomes one of the most powerful men in England.
  288. What is the best source of information to use to know what it was like in 11th century England?
    The Domesday Book
  289. Who was the intended heir of King William I of England (Bastard)? Why did he not become King?
    William's son, Robert (the devil) - Robert was gone to the first crusades when his father (William) died, so Robert's brother Henry I seized the treasury and became King
  290. What was William the Conquerors non-intended heir?
    Henry I
  291. How was Robert's (the devil) brother able to become king when their father William Normandy died?
    Robert was away with the first crusades when he died and Henry seized the treasury in Winchester - by doing this, becoming king
  292. What happened when Robert came back form the crusade to his brother, Henry I, being king?
    Robert and Henry went on a hunting trip together and Robert ended up with an arrow in his forehead and Henry not knowing what happened.
  293. Why does King Henry I often get over looked as being one of the greatest kings of England?
    because it was stuck in-between a period of two towering figures as king - King William and King Henry II
  294. What title was won when King Henry I went to war with King Louie (6th) of France?
    Henry won himself, outright, the Duchy of Normandy.
  295. Since William conqueror, any man who is king, is also what?
    Duke of Normandy
  296. Who told King Henry I that he was not Duke of Normandy? What happened because of this?
    King Louie (6th) of France - Henry I went to war with Louie.
  297. What areas had Henry I been dominant in France when he went to ware with King Louie (6th)? What happened after this?
    He had won Normandy and had reached the gates of France when King Louie decided to make peace.
  298. What were the terms of the peace treaty between King Henry I and King Louie 6th?
    King Louie had to give up Brittany and Maine
  299. What is the tragedy of the white ship?
    When Henry I's son William was killed by this sinking ship in 5ft. of water. They were all drunk.
  300. How did King Henry I lose his only male heir, William?
    He died in the Tragedy of the White Ship
  301. What did Henry want to do when his only male heir to the throne die?
    He wanted to leave his throne to his daughter, Matilda (aka Maud)
  302. Who is Matilda (aka Maud)?
    Henry I daughter whom he wanted to give his throne to when he passes (after his son William had died). She constantly fought back and forth with King Stephen for control of the kingdom
  303. What was Henry I's daughter's name?
    Matilda (Maud)
  304. What 2 large things happened after Matilda's father, Henry I, died?
    She claimed herself the Queen of England and her first cousin Stephen claimed to be King of England
  305. Who claimed himself the King of England the same time his cousin, Matilda (Maud), claimed herself the Queen of England (when Henry I died)?
    Stephen
  306. What else is Matilda, Henry I daughter, known as?
    Maud
  307. Who else was Maud, Henry I daughter, known as?
    Matilda
  308. What happened because both Matilda (Maud) and her cousin Stephen claimed to be ruler of England?
    a civil war broke out between Matilda (Maud) and Stephen called Anarchy
  309. Anarchy
    civil war between Matilda (Maud) and Stephen
  310. Who took part in the ruling of England that is not officially recognized by England history?
    Matilda (Maud)
  311. What does Matilda's (Maud) son Henry do to stop the fighting with King Stephen and secure the throne of England for himself?
    Treaty of Wallingford - He tells King Stephen that he can rule for as long as he lived and that he would take over after him
  312. What territory had Matilda and, eventually her son, Henry inherited for themselves?
    Matilda (Maud) married Duke of Anjou - Henry received the land of Anjou - another French territory
  313. How does the Duke of Anjou play a role in this story?
    Matilda (Maud) married the Duke of Anjou and their child was the rightful next in line to be king after Stephen. Their child, Henry, would inherit the Anjou territory in France.
  314. Treaty of Wallingford
    agreement between King Stephen and Henry (Matilda/Maud's son) that there would be no more fighting, King Stephen could rule for as long as he lived and then Henry would become king next.
  315. What happened soon after the treaty of Wallingford?
    Unknown why, King Stephen only died a few months after the treaty was made and Henry became King Henry II of England
  316. Once King Stephen died and Henry II became king, what all territory did he have immediately?
    Anjou, England, Normandy, Maine, Brittany
  317. Who was the most powerful man in Europe because of his vast territory control? What total territory did he control after marrying Eleanor?
    King Henry II (Anjou, England, Normandy, Maine, Brittany, Aquitaine)
  318. Who did King Henry II marry at 19?
    Eleanor of Aquitaine (29)
  319. What was officially said of King Henry II (19) after marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine (29)?
    Henry II controlled more territory of France than the French king had
  320. How many children did Eleanor bore king Henry II?
    13 children
  321. Eleanor lived to be how old?
    84
  322. What happened 10 years into marriage between Henry and Aquitaine? What happened after?
    Henry had an affair with another woman and Eleanor raised an army against him. The last 10 years of their marriage, Henry kept Eleanor under house arrest
  323. Where did King Henry II decide to conquer next?
    Ireland
  324. What happened when king Henry II decided to conquer Ireland?
    He was only able to subdue a small area around Dublin (The Pale)
  325. The Pale
    the only small area around Dublin that Henry II was able to occupy and control (out of -entire-Ireland)
  326. What phrase do we get from Henry II trying to conquer Ireland? What does it mean?
    Beyond the Pale - refers to something that is beyond what is acceptable/civilized
  327. Why was Henry II called the "Lion" and/or "Lion of Justice"?
    because of his extensive legal reforms
  328. What was called the Lion of Justice? Why?
    Henry II - because of his extensive legal reforms
  329. British Common Law dates back to who?
    King Henry II
  330. What does the phrase "Common Law" mean?
    Referring to precedent
  331. What was one of the oldest law offices in history (second) that was created by King Henry II? What did they do?
    Justice of the Peace - traveled the circuit and everywhere they went, they would pass from village to village making sure there was agreement between everyone and make sure there were no civil issues that needed to be handled.
  332. Who traveled the circuit and everywhere they went, they would pass from village to village making sure there was agreement between everyone and make sure there were no civil issues that needed to be handled?
    The Justice of the Peace (created by Henry II)
  333. What was the beginning of English Common Law (precedent)?
    Justice of the Peace - one per year the justices would meet together and share cases setting precedent
  334. What was Henry's biggest and most infamous problem?
    With the church - specifically the differences in courts (church court vs. king/royal court)
  335. What happened when the position of archbishop of Canterbury became available?
    King Henry II asked a friend of his, Thomas Beckett, to take the job - even though he was not specifically religious in any way.
  336. Thomas Beckett
    a friend of Henry II who he asked to become archbishop of Canterbury
  337. What seemed to happen to Thomas Beckett when he took the job of Archbishop of Canterbury? What effect did this have between him and Henry II?
    It seemed as though he had a personal/sincere conversion to religion during during his roll as archbishop - this made Henry II very irritated and it deteriorated their relationship over the next few years
  338. What made Henry II very irritated and it deteriorated his and Thomas Beckett's relationship over the next few years?
    The fact that Beckett had a personal/sincere conversion to religion during during his roll as archbishop
  339. What was the first (main) issue between Thomas Beckett (archbishop of Canterbury) and Henry II (king) - including all details?
    Beckett had a murdering/rapping (raped/killed 11 yr old girl, killed her father) priest tried in church court and Henry wanted to try him in King/Royal courts but Beckett told him no. Priest ended up being flogged and removed from church - instead of being tortured and killed by king/royal court.
  340. What were the differences between the King/royal court and the church court?
    King/Royal court tried criminal law and was known to be harsh. Church court tried anyone who had been trained/educated within the court and was known to be lenient.
  341. What percentage of adult males in England could chose to be tried in the church court if needed?
    25%
  342. What did it mean if you were trained/educated in the church?
    You were not subject to king/royal courts
  343. What next issue came about between Henry II and Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop after the first issue between them regarding the church vs. royal courts - with details-?
    A few years go by and Henry II decides he wants a ceremony to divide his kingdoms up and invest them among his children (so they wouldn't fight about it). During ceremonies of this nature, archbishop of Canterbury are always present (to officiate?), but Henry II invited archbishop of York instead of Beckett. Beckett found out and excommunicated archbishop or york and all involved.
  344. Who did Henry II invite to be present over the investing of kingdoms to his children instead of Beckett?
    Archbishop of York
  345. What happened when messenger arrived to tell Henry II that Beckett had excommunicated the archbishop of York and all involved? - Rest of details
    Henry stood on table, intoxicated, and said "is there no one who will rid me of this meddlesome priest? Four of henry's knights then went and murdered becket in church at noon during prayer
  346. What happened as a punishment to King Henry II and the knights for killing, Thomas Beckett, the Archbishop of Canterbury?
    Henry II was flogged (public penance) and knights were exiled from court but found to have been given large estates and payments for the rest of their lives.
  347. What happened with King Henry II 1 year after the Archbishop of Canterbury was killed?
    He was give the name 'Saint' Henry II
  348. What happened to the shrine where Thomas Beckett had been killed?
    A later King, Henry (8th), had destroyed it. He had his remains dug up, tried him for treason, decapitated him, had his bones ground into power and destroyed, took his bishop ring and had it made into a thumb ring.
  349. What did they find when taking the clothes away from the dead Thomas Beckett? What did this possible mean?
    They found that Beckett had been wearing a hair shirt under his robes for years, which had vermin living in it. This showed that he very well may have had a true conversion to religion, that he was ashamed of his past and was punishing himself for his old ways.

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