Project Time Management.txt

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  1. What are the processes and their corresponding process groups in the Time Management knowledge area?
    • Define Activities: Planning
    • Sequence Activites: Planning
    • Estimate Activity Resources: Planning
    • Estimate Activity Durations: Planning
    • Control Schedule: Monitoring and Controlling
  2. Decomposing "Work Packages" further results in what units?
    Schedule Activities
  3. When is Define Activities typically performed?
    Immediately after scope baseline is created and placed under control
  4. What is the key input to Define Activities?
    Scope Baseline
  5. What are the 4 tools used by Define Activites?
    • Decomposition
    • Rolling Wave Planning
    • Templates
    • Expert Judgement
  6. How does "Rolling Wave Planning" work for Define Activities?
    Some work packages are broken down into schedule activities now, while further off work packages are left un-decomposed until more detail is understood later in the project.
  7. True or False: The project manager should handle Define Activites decomposition by himself
    False. The PM should heavily involve the team members who will be doing the work
  8. What are the 3 outputs from Define Activities
    • Activity List
    • Activity Attributes
    • Milestone List - maybe contractual/constraint related
  9. True or False: The schedule activities are part of the Work Breakdown Structure
    False. The WBS ends at the work package level of decomposition which is part of the scope baseline and is deliverable-focused. The schedule activites level of decomposition ties more closely to the schedule than the scope baseline.
  10. Put these processes in order of execution: Develop Schedule, Define Activities, Sequence Activities
    • 1. Define Activities
    • 2. Sequence Activities
    • 3. Develop Schedule
  11. Which process is responsible for creating the initial network logic diagram?
    Sequence Activities
  12. What are the 4 key inputs to Sequence Activities
    • Activity List
    • Activity Attributes
    • Milestone List
    • Project Scope Statement
  13. Why is the Milestone List used as an input to Sequence Activities?
    The contractual obligations/constraints detailed in the milestone list may impact the order in which activities need to be performed.
  14. Define "Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)"
    A method of network logic diagramming that puts activites on nodes. Used as a tool in the Sequence Activities process.
  15. What 3 types of dependencies may exist among activities?
    • Mandatory Dependencies (aka hard logic)
    • Discretionary Dependencies (aka soft/preferred logic)
    • External Dependencies
  16. What 4 tools are used by the Sequence Activities process?
    • Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
    • Dependency Determination
    • Apply Leads and Lags
    • Schedule Network Templates
  17. True or False: Leads don't change dependencies, they merely "cheat" them
    True. The dependencies still exist, but leads let resources get a jump on an activity.
  18. Define "subnetwork" aka "fragment network"
    A portion of a network logic diagram from a previous project (or from a template) that is used on a new project to save time.
  19. What is the key output of the Sequence Activities process?
    Project Schedule Network Diagram
  20. True or False: The Project Schedule Network Diagram is the formal term for the Project Schedule
    False. The PSND doesn't have any dates or durations, just the activities organized in the order they must be executed.
  21. Define the 4 key inputs to Estimate Activity Resources
    • Activity List
    • Activity Attributes
    • Resource Calendars
    • Enterprise Environmental Factors - if project requires access to enterprise resources
  22. Define the 5 tools used by Estimate Activity Resources
    • Expert Judgement - talk to those who've been there
    • Alternatives Analysis - build, outsource, shrinkwrap, alternate approach, etc
    • Published Estimating Data
    • Bottom-Up Estimating - breaking activities down even further
    • Project Management Software
  23. Define the 3 outputs from Estimate Activity Resources
    • Activity Resource Requirements
    • Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS)
    • Project Doc Updates - Activity list, activity attributes, resource calendar
  24. Define the 4 key inputs into Estimate Activity Durations
    • Activity List
    • Activity Attributes
    • Resource Calendars
    • Project Scope Statement (contains constraints & assumptions)
  25. Define the 5 tools used by Estimate Activity Durations
    • Expert Judgement
    • Analogous Estimating (based on actuals from past projects)
    • Parametric Estimating (if 100 feet takes 1 day, then 1000 feet...)
    • Three-Point Estimates / PERT
    • Reserve Analysis
  26. What is Reserve Analysis?
    It's adding a pad/contingency to an activity duration estimate
  27. How is a Three-Point Estimate calculated?
    PERT Estimate = (Pessimistic + 4*Realistic + Optimistic) / 6
  28. How is standard deviation calculated with regard to duration estimates?
    SD = (Pessimistic - Optimistic) / 6
  29. What are the 2 outputs from Estimate Activity Durations
    • Activity Duration Estimates
    • Project Document Updates - typically updates to Activity Attributes
  30. What are the 7 key inputs to Develop Schedule
    • Activity List
    • Activity Attributes
    • Project Schedule Network Diagram
    • Activity Resource Requirements
    • Activity Duration Estimates
    • Resource Calendars
    • Project Scope Statement (contains constraints & assumptions)
  31. What are the 8 tools used by Develop Schedule
    • Schedule Network Analysis
    • Critical Path Method (CPM)
    • Critical Chain Method
    • Resource Leveling
    • What-If Scenario Analysis
    • Applying Leads and Lags
    • Schedule Compression
    • Scheduling Tool
  32. What is Schedule Network Analysis?
    This is a general tool that can refer to any and all tools used by Develop Schedule
  33. What are the 3 key purposes of the Critical Path Method?
    • 1. Calculate project's finish date
    • 2. Identify how much individual activities can slip ("float" or "slack") and not delay the project
    • 3. Identify highest risk activities that cannot slip without changing the project finish date
  34. How is the Critical Chain Method different than the Critical Path Method?
    The CPM uses realistic estimates and adds buffers to specific high-risk activities. The CCM, uses aggressive estimates and keeps a total project buffer (not known by the project team) to use at PM's discretion.
  35. Describe Resource Leveling
    Resource Leveling is used to adjust the initial critical path / schedule to take into account resource availability. The critical path may change based on the realities of resources.
  36. What is What-If Scenario Analysis?
    It uses Monte Carlo analysis to predict likely schedule outcomes and identify high risk areas of the schedule
  37. What are the two most common forms of Schedule Compression?
    • Crashing
    • Fast Tracking
  38. What is Crashing?
    Crashing is adding resources (at a cost) to activities so the project finishes quicker. Generally the decrease in time is NOT linear to the number of resources added (diminishing returns).
  39. What is Fast Tracking?
    Rearranging tasks (by ignoring discretionary dependencies) to complete the project sooner. It may or may not increase costs, but almost always increases risk.
  40. What are the 4 outputs of Develop Schedule
    • Project Schedule (the original)
    • Schedule Baseline (original schedule + approved changes)
    • Schedule Data (i.e. support for how schedule was developed)
    • Project Document Updates (resource requirements, activity attributes, risk logs, calendars, etc)
  41. What are the 3 common forms to record/display the Project Schedule
    • Project Network Diagram
    • Bar Charts (aka Gantt Charts)
    • Milestone Chart
  42. Which Project Schedule form is best suited for showing dependencies?
    Project Network Diagram
  43. Which Project Schedule form is best suited for calculating critical path?
    Project Network Diagram
  44. Which Project Schedule form is best suited for communication with management?
    Bar/Gantt Charts
  45. Which Project Schedule form is best suited for high-level presentations?
    Milestone Chart
  46. What are the 3 key inputs to Control Schedule?
    • Project Managment Plan - contains Schedule Mgmt Plan and Schedule Baseline
    • Project Schedule
    • Work Performance Information
  47. What are the 7 tools used by Control Schedule?
    • Performance Reviews
    • Variance Analysis
    • Project Mgmt Software / Scheduling Tools
    • Resource Leveling (re-leveling as things change)
    • What-If Scenario Analysis
    • Adjusting Leads and Lags
    • Schedule Compression
  48. What are the 3 key outputs from Control Schedule?
    • Work Performance Measurements
    • Change Requests
    • Project Management Plan Updates (particularly if scope or cost change)
  49. What 2 key performance measurements are typically calculated as part of Control Schedule?
    • Schedule Performance Index (SPI)
    • Schedule Variance (SV)
  50. Define "Float" aka "Slack"
    How much a project can slip before it will delay the project finish. Activites on the critical path have a zero float.
  51. A "Forward Pass" is a technique for determining what 2 schedule activity metrics?
    • Early Start
    • Early Finish
  52. What is the "Early Start" metric?
    It's how early an activity could begin if everything goes according to plan
  53. What is the "Early Finish" metric?
    It's the earliest an activity could end if everything goes according to plan. Calculated as Early Start + estimated duration - 1 (don't forget the minus one).
  54. A "Backward Pass" is a technique for determining what 2 schedule activity metrics?
    • Late Start
    • Late Finish
  55. What is the "Late Start" metric?
    It's the latest an activity could start and not delay the project's finish date. Calculated as early start + float.
  56. What is the "Late Finish" metric?
    It's the latest an activity can end and not delay the project's finish date. Calculated as late start + estimated duration - 1 (don't forget the minus one).
  57. How can an activity's relationship to the critical path be determined if given Early Start and Late Start metrics?
    • If the activity is on the critical path, its early start and late start will be the same.
    • Also, its early finish and late finish will be the same.
  58. When Early Start, Early Finish, Late Start, and Late Finish are shown on a project network diagram, which number appears where?
    • ES = upper left
    • EF = upper right
    • LS = lower left
    • LF = lower right
  59. Define "Free Float"
    How much could a particular activity slip without impacting the Early Start of a subsequent dependent activity. Note: free float is about delaying a subsequent activity. Float is about delaying the overall project.
  60. Define "Negative Float"
    Occurs if an activity's start date is BEFORE a preceding activity's finish date. This will force a delay until the preceeding activity finishes. If your schedule has negative float, it has problems.
  61. What is the Delphi technique?
    A means of gathering expert judgment where the participants do not know who the others are and therefore are not able to influence each other's opinion. Designed to prevent groupthink.
  62. What are "Heuristics"?
    Rules for which no formula exists. Usually derived through trial and error.
  63. What is a "Lag"?
    A delay between an activity and the subsequent one dependent upon it. For example, after pouring concrete, there is a 3-day "drying" lag before you can build on it.
  64. What is a "Lead"?
    Getting a head-start on a task before the predecessor task completes (e.g. beginning testing before coding completes)
  65. What is "Monte Carlo Analysis"?
    A computer simulation throws a high number of "what if" scenarios at a project schedule to determine probable results.
  66. What is "Precedence Diagramming Method"?
    Also called "Activity on Node", it's a type of network diagram where the boxes are activities and the arrows are used to show dependencies betweent the activities.
  67. The most common types of reserve time (aka contingency) are: "Project %", "Project lump sum", "Activity %" and "Activity lump sum". Define these.
    • Project % - Add x% to the entire project schedule
    • Project lump sum - Add y calendar days to the project
    • Activity % - add z% to each activity (or to key, high-risk activities)
    • Activity lump sum - Add n hours to each activity (or to key, high-risk activities)
  68. Image Upload 1
    Define the Time planning processes (letters) and the key inputs/outputs (numbers) in the diagram above.
    • A: Define Activities
    • B: Sequence Activities
    • C: Estimate Activity Resources
    • D: Estimate Activity Durations
    • E: Develop Schedule
    • 1: Activity List
    • 2: Project Schedule Network Diagrams
    • 3: Resource Requirements
    • 4: Duration Estimates
Card Set
Project Time Management.txt
PMP Exam Time Management
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