Mus 100 Final

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  1. World War I and II dates
    • WWI: 1914-1918
    • WWII: 1939-1945
  2. Impressionism
    • blurring of harmonies, rhythms, forms
    • avoiding clear cadences and rhythmic patterns
    • produces sensations rather than representations of objects
  3. Claude Debussy
    • example of impressionism music focusing on sensations and perceptions rather than direct representation
    • attemped to create images of "waves" or "sails" through music
    • from Paris
  4. gamelan
    • an Indonesian ensemble where a number of instruments play melodies in interlocking patterns
    • not notated
    • series of ostinatos
  5. ostinatos
    repeating musical patterns of different lengths and tempos
  6. whole-tone scale
    • 6 notes equally spaced within the octave as opossed to the typical 7-note scale
    • all notes seems to be equally important
  7. Primitivism
    • focusing on the ancient or un-enlightened
    • features driving, percussive rhythm drawing from folk music
  8. Igor Stravinsky
    • wrote the ballet "The Rite of Spring"
    • Russian, Primitivist, Neo-Clasicist
  9. polytonal
    2 tonalities going on at the same time being dissonant
  10. pentatonic
    5-notes scale capturing a folk-like sound form Russian folk songs
  11. neoclassicist
    a composer who retained musical elements from the past while experimenting with new ones
  12. Expressionism
    • intense self-expression
    • contrast the passivity of impressionism
    • "giving voice to the unconscious, to humanity's deepest and darkest emotions
    • assoicated with the "Second Viennese School"
  13. atonality
    composers tried not to emphasize any single tone over another
  14. Arnold Schoenberg
    • Austrian
    • wrote "Pierrot lunaire" about a love sick clown
  15. sprechstimme
    • "speech-voice"
    • soprano sings throughout in a manner that is btw speech and song
    • singer hits precise pitches but doesn't hold them which creates a eerie, disassoicated sort of sound that fits with the text
  16. modernism
    accentuates ratios and rationality
  17. Ruth Crawford Seeger
    • -1st women to ever win a Guggenheim Fellowship to study in Europe for awhile
    • -Modernist
    • - composed with a conscious effort to avoid using some of the most basic elements of music
  18. 12-tone music
    • all 12 notes in the scale are heard once before any is repeated
    • there is no tonal center
  19. monophoix
    both hand play the same music but they are an octave apart
  20. sectional-music
    music is punctuated by brief but important, moments of silence that divide the work into 5 sections
  21. 12-Tone compostion/ serial compositon
    the most widely used and systematic means for avoiding repeition and tonality
  22. tone row
    melody in a serial compositon that can be manipulated in retrograde, inversion, and retrograde inversion
  23. Aaron Copland
    • composer of Americana
    • piece= "Hoe Down" from Rodeo
  24. Hoe Down
    an energetic, duple-meter dance assoicated with square dancing
  25. Americana
    finding the sounds of America
  26. John Cage
    • piece= 4'33"
    • audience sounds, ambient noise,etc. create the piece
    • post-modernist
    • Born in LA
    • audiences were forced by his music to rethink the nature of music and the world around them
  27. postmodernism
    characterized by a rejection of objectivity; truth is completely realitive
  28. aleatoric music
    • music created by change
    • composers decided certain things about the piece and performers and other factors determine other factors about the piece
  29. Sound Mass
    • orchestral tone clusters
    • kind of postexpressionism and sonorism
  30. tone clusters
    a highly dissonant, closely space collection of pitches sounding simultaneously
  31. sonorism
    • manipulation of sound masses
    • typically assoicated with the 1960s
  32. Gyorgy Ligeti
    • worked with orchestra clusters
    • Transyian
    • Stanley Kubrick made his pieces famous without his permission
  33. Krzysztof Penderecki
    • Polish
    • experiemental notation, extended instrumental techniques
    • thrrenody
  34. Threnody
    a poem or its musical setting, expressing a strong feeling of grief for the dead
  35. Jazz
    • contains many styles
    • all jazz contains improvisions
  36. Scott Joplin
    "King of Ragtime"
  37. ragtime
    • pre-jazz music for the piano associated with saloons and illict establishments
    • rhythms, melodies, and performances formed basic traditons of jazz
    • contains syncopation throughout
  38. sectional form
    discrete units of music juxaposed to create a complete piece; each section has its own melody
  39. Duke Ellington
    • famous orchestra had 15 players that were interested in concertos and concert pianos
    • swing music
  40. swing music
    danceable style of jazz that emerged in the 1930s featuring large ensembles/ big bands
  41. groove
    underlying rhythmic pattern in jazz music
  42. shout chorus
    trumpet plays a higher pitch
  43. head
    the first performing the main tune
  44. Charlie Pakes
  45. Bebop
    new style of playing that used smaller ensembles that was used for listening, not dancing with a strong emphasis on inprovistation and solos
  46. jazz combos
    small ensembles of 5-7 players used in the bebop style
  47. Blues
    • musical genre derived from African American performance traditions that uses "blue notes" and tells first person studies of hard knocks and love games gone wrong
    • typically 12-measures
  48. Robert Johnson
    • made a deal with the devil to sell his soul for abililty to play music
    • blues
  49. blue note melody
    • pitches are flatter than the standard major scale
    • the instrumentalist lowers the notes as mood and emotional inflection indicate
  50. Miles Davis
    • composer of cool jazz, modal jazz, and fusion
    • influential for all-star band of preformers, much more accesible that bop stylings, introduced mode-based jazz to the next generation of improvisers
  51. cool jazz
    music containing sounds that are not loud and tone qualities that are not rough or brassy; very similar to bop
  52. modal jazz
    slow moving harmonies
  53. fusion
    • mixes elements of rock with jazz due to the increasing unpopularity of jazz
    • electronic instruments
  54. John Coltrane
    hard-bop composer
  55. hard-bop
    • an evolution from bebop, increasing speed, virtuosity, and harmonic complexity
    • written as an exercise to improvising through chord progessions with few shared notes
  56. Ornette Coleman
    Free jazz music
  57. free jazz
    • the practice of improvising music free of present chord progressions
    • emphasis on texture over melody
    • very little pre-composed material with lengthy tracks
  58. Weather Report
    Jazz-Fusion group who combined jazz elements with many different musical styles
  59. collective improvisation
    • instruments were not limited to a role
    • melody or rhythm could come from any performer
  60. Minstrelsy
    • variety show featuring performers in blackface with no plot. but spread music from shows around the country
    • first significant form of popular music entertainment
    • led to Vaudeville (variety show), Revue (topical show with loose plot), and musical theather
  61. Tin-Pan Alley
    nickname for 28th street in NYC which housed a large number of music publishers geared toward popular music that sold large quanitites of sheet music
  62. John Philip Sosa
    • american bands
    • directed a military band before preforming his own independent band
    • bands toured throughout Europe performing marches, virtusoic, solos, orchestral pieces and popular music
  63. Vernon Dalhart
    • "The Prisoner's song"
    • the second best-selling song btw 1900-1950
  64. country music
    doctored folk style fofr a popular audience with trained voices, and viola used instead of a fiddle
  65. Western Swing
    • combined elements of blues, jazz, and country music
    • frequently used the steel guitar
  66. folk music
    the goal of folk is not to have trained voices and musical sohistication but instead to focus on text about common people and common problems
  67. Rhythm and Blues
    • blues form, accessible and danceable
    • popular style encompassing many trends, including blues and dance music
    • Black music
  68. Rock and Roll
    • orignially party of R&B but became its own
    • strong backbeat with 2 guitars, bass, drums, and piano
    • written to appeal to young audiences
  69. shuffle rhythm
    in 4/4 meter with each beat subdividing into 3 pulses
  70. stop time
    shuffle rhythm comes to an abrupt halt 6 times punctuating ends of sections of the song
  71. call and response
    after each vocal line, the guitar echoes the singer's melody with slight variations
  72. 12-Bar Blues
    • uses 3 chords
    • bass player's sound highlights when the chords change
  73. a Musical
    a spoken drama with a substantial amount of singing
  74. additive
    various characters are drawn into the scene as the strory plays out
  75. motown
    • based out of Detriot- "Motortown"
    • record label- Mototown featuring black performers
    • highly polished, slick sounds with back-up singers
    • R & B and pop
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Mus 100 Final
Final Exam
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