MH3 Test 4

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MH3 Test 4
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2011-05-06 04:33:28
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Music History 3 Test 4
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  1. Internationale Ferienkurse fur Neue Musik, Darmstadt
    • Initiated by Wolfgang Steinecke
    • Darmstadt International Summer Courses for New Music), held annually until 1970 and subsequently every two years, encompass both the teaching of composition and interpretation and include premières of new works. After Steinecke's death in 1961, the courses were run by Ernst Thomas (1962–81), Friedrich Hommel (1981–94), Solf Schaefer (1995–2009), and Thomas Schäfer (2009-). Thanks to these courses, Darmstadt is now a major centre of modern music, particularly for German composers.
  2. Donaueschinger Musiktage
    The Donaueschingen Festival (in German: Donaueschinger Musiktage) is a festival for new music that takes place every October in the small town of Donaueschingen. Founded in 1921, it is the oldest festival for contemporary music in the world, and among the best-known and most prestigious.

    In 1913, the Donaueschingen Society of Friends of Music was founded under the auspices of the House of Fuerstenberg. The idea soon arose to establish a small festival for presenting young and promising artists. A committee of distinguished musicians, among them Ferruccio Busoni, Hans Pfitzner, Arthur Nikisch and Richard Strauss, met in 1921 to discuss possible formats for the event.
  3. Mode de valeurs et d’intensites
    For some compositions, Messiaen created scales for duration, attack and timbre analogous to the chromatic pitch scale. He expressed annoyance at the historical importance given to one of these works, Mode de valeurs et d'intensités, by musicologists intent on crediting him with the invention of "total serialism"
  4. Pierre Boulez
    Boulez sought to expand to a ‘richer’ harmonic world, but still base it on 12-tone rows or serialism


    • as a conductor - Domaine musical series in Paris
    • 1954-73
    • Boulez led until 1967
    • 1967: started to push for the founding and building of this ‘meeting place’ (IRCAM)
    • funds were granted in 1970 by president George Pompidou
    • wanted to create a musical composition that would highlight the possibilities available by IRCAM technologies
    • boulez wanted to free interaction between live performers and electronic sounds


    “Frequency multiplication” or “pitch multiplication”

    • The Hammer without a master
    • Le marteau sans maitre
    • 1953-55

    • setting of three poems by surrealist poet Rene Char
    • alto flute, xylorimba, vibraphone, guitar, viola, unpitched percussion, and alto voice
    • increased demands of this type of music and the increase in available technology allow composers to realize their most extreme ideas in electronic music


    • France - in Paris
    • Germany - in Cologne
    • “Rundfunk” - Radio broadcasting (Germany)

    • named by region
    • most important was WDR


    ORTF (France)

    France’s national broadcasting system
  5. IRCAM
    • 1967: Boulez started to push for the founding and building of this ‘meeting place’ (IRCAM)
    • funds were granted in 1970 by president George Pompidou
    • wanted to create a musical composition that would highlight the possibilities available by IRCAM technologies
    • boulez wanted to free interaction between live performers and electronic sounds
  6. Musique concrete (French)
    • originated in Paris 1948
    • Pierre Schaeffer founded studio
    • concrete music
    • inspired by film and radio soundtracks
    • created solely out of recorded, found “concrete” sound objects
  7. Elektronische Musik (German)
    • created in Cologne at same time as Musique concrete
    • idea of creating real sounds out of artificial means
    • could only use artificial sounds -- sounds produced by ‘synthesizer’
  8. Karlheinz Stockhausen
    - worked in both the Paris and Cologne studios

    interested in bridging the technological gap between the two
  9. Gesang der Junglige 1955-6
    • Stockhausen
    • widely considered the first electronic piece with enough aesthetic content to rival concert works that were being produced
  10. Hymnen 1966-67
    • Stockhausen
    • “National anthems”
    • divided into four “regions”
    • 1. dedicated to Boulez

    • uses French National Anthem
    • uses USSR old national anthem

    2. dedicated to Henri Pouesseur

    • uses German national anthem
    • uses a group of African anthems
    • uses Russian anthem

    3. dedicated to John Cage

    uses US national anthem

    4. dedicated to Luciano Berio

    uses Swiss anthem
  11. Total serialism
    - the use of series for aspects such as duration, dynamics, and register as well as pitch

    For some compositions, Messiaen created scales for duration, attack and timbre analogous to the chromatic pitch scale. He expressed annoyance at the historical importance given to one of these works, Mode de valeurs et d'intensités, by musicologists intent on crediting him with the invention of "total serialism.”
  12. Punctualism
    "music that consists of separately formed particles—however complexly these may be composed—[is called] punctual music, as opposed to linear, or group-formed, or mass-formed music" (Stockhausen 1998, 452). This was accomplished by assigning to each note in a composition values drawn from scales of pitch, duration, dynamics, and attack characteristics, resulting in a "stronger individualizing of separate tones" (Frisius 1994). Another important factor was maintaining discrete values in all parameters of the music.
  13. Pitch multiplicaiton
    • Boulez
    • Given two sets, the result of pitch multiplication will be the set of sums (modulo 12) of all possible pairings of elements between the original two sets. Its definition:
    • For example, if multiplying a C major chord {0,4,7} with a dyad containing C,D {0,2}
  14. Repons
    - premiered in 1981 at Donaueschingen Festival

    • Boulez
    • introduction - 8 sections - coda
    • introduction: no electronic manipulation, only the acoustic ensemble, no soloists
    • live manipulation of performers’ gestures is of prime importance
    • Boulez’s compositions are open-ended
  15. Domaine muiscal
    • a concert society established by Pierre Boulez in Paris, which was active from 1954 to 1973.
    • Boulez was conductor
  16. Ensemble Intercontemporain
    • French chamber orchestra, based in Paris at the Cité de la musique and IRCAM, which specialises in contemporary classical music.
    • Pierre Boulez founded the EIC in 1976 in association with the French culture minister Michel Guy and the co-founder of the London Sinfonietta, Nicholas Snowman, conceiving it as a group of virtuoso soloists who could play orchestral literature or literature for any combination of instruments. The idea was for the ensemble to be more flexible than an orchestra, allowing composers to write for a group of instruments of their own choice. Many works that might have been conceived for orchestra are now being written with this instrumentation in mind. For example, Tristan Murail's Désintégrations, Helmut Lachenmann's Zwei Gefühle: Musik mit Leonardo, and Pierre Boulez's Répons, are all pieces that exist in the area between orchestral and chamber music.
  17. John Cage 1912-92
    • studied with Henry Cowell in NYC
    • returned to LA to study with Schoenberg at UCLA
    • Cage flirted for a short time with 12-tone compositions (used 25-note rows)
    • late 1930s-early 1940s: began working as a rehearsal pianist for modern dance groups and ballet
    • Merce Cunningham: choreographer - met in Seattle
    • Cage left behind the idea of pitched harmonic music
    • composed percussion works for dance
    • had to rectify need for percussive sounds, but no room for percussion instruments
    • to do this, he developed the Prepared Piano - reproduce sounds of large percussion ensemble but only require one performer
    • influence of Indian philosophy
    • Boulez was interested in open-form and also end results

    • direction Cage was going was to challenge what music is
    • - in the 80s and 90s - Cage received an enormous amount of commissions
    • - 1987-92: series of “Numbered Pieces”
    • - One = solo piano

    • Number in title = number of performers
    • One2

    • - 52 number pieces - ranging from “one” to “108”
    • - all use “time bracket” notation

    Epitome of “open form” pieces
  18. Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano
    • Cage
    • 1946-8

    • 1949 - traveled to Europe - toured his music
    • met Boulez at Darmstadt

    • Cage at this time had become interested in Eastern philosophy Japan and China
    • I-Ching (Book of Changes)

    Cage started to incorporate this idea of chance outcomes into his music


    Imaginary Landscapes No. 4 - 12 radio transmitters

    • music could exist as any sound
    • indeterminate music



    started incorporating this idea of chance into live traditional instrumental performances
  19. Music of Changes
    • - 1951 - composed for pianist David Tudor
    • - Boulez was interested in open-form and also end results
    • - direction Cage was going was to challenge what music is
  20. 4’33”
    • Cage
    • 1952
    • played with any combination of instruments (left up to environment)
  21. “Numbered Pieces”
    • - Cage
    • - One = solo piano

    • Number in title = number of performers
    • One2

    • - 52 number pieces - ranging from “one” to “108”
    • - all use “time bracket” notation

    Epitome of “open form” pieces
  22. Prepared Piano
    • Cage
    • piano with stuff in it
  23. I-Ching (Book of Changes)
    Cage started to incorporate this idea of chance outcomes into his music
  24. George Rochberg 1918-2005
    • 1950: had a residency at the American Academy in Rome
    • met Luigi Dallapiccola

    • main Italian composer of 12-tone music
    • using it in a Berg-ian way (lyrical etc.)

    • 1950s-early 60s: Rochberg composing in strict serial style
    • really frustrated by rhythmic/tempo constraints of serial music
    • starts to use “free” notation for rhythm
    • String Quartet No.2
    • Rochberg struggled to create cariety in his music
    • 1964 - his 20-year son was killed
  25. String Quartet No. 3
    - Rochberg


    • premiered in 1972
    • assocaited with Beethoven and Mahler
    • 3 “abteilungs” (divisions)
    • 5 mvmt work grouped into 3 divisions
    • Part A = introduction/Fantasia; March
    • Part B = 3 Variations
    • Part C = March; Finale (Scherzos and Serenades)
    • pluralism, postmodernism, polystylism
  26. Alfred Schnittke 1934-98
    • studied in Vienna 1946-8
    • 1958: wrote an oratorio called Nagasaki, was banned
    • 1962-84: wrote film scores for government ran film agencies
    • quick cuts between musical styles; incorporation of pop elements and folk elements
    • tonal allusions
    • 1985: Gorbachev becomes leader of USSR; cultural climate began to thaw
    • 1977 - Concerto grosso No. 1
    • Concerto for mixed Choir
  27. Postmodernism
    • Rochberg’s String Quartet No. C
    • The postmodern impulse in classical music arose in the 1970s with the advent of musical minimalism. Composers such as Terry Riley, Henryk Górecki, Bradley Joseph, John Adams, Steve Reich, Phillip Glass, Michael Nyman, and Lou Harrison reacted to the perceived elitism and dissonant sound of atonal academic modernism by producing music with simple textures and relatively consonant harmonies. Some composers have been openly influenced by popular music and world ethnic musical traditions.
  28. Neoconservative postmodernism
    • Neoconservative, "postmodernism is understood as a 'return to the verities of tradition (in art, family, religion …)' and where, crucially, modernism 'is reduced to a style … and condemned or excised entirely as a cultural mistake; pre- and postmodern elements are then elided, and the humanist tradition is preserved.
    • Reich
  29. Polystylism
    • use of multiple styles
    • characteristic of postmodernism
  30. Louis Andriessen
    Since the early 1970s he has refused to write for conventional symphony orchestras and has instead opted to write for his own idiosyncratic instrumental combinations, which often retain some traditional orchestral instruments alongside electric guitars, electric basses, and congas.
  31. De Staat “The Republic” 1972-6
    - Andriessen

    • move away from traditional instrumentation
    • anti-establishment/anarchist politically
    • not diatonic, but chromatic, therefore much more dissonant
  32. Terry Riley
    • one of the father’s of American minimalism
    • wrote In C
  33. Steve Reich
    • b. 1936
    • in electronic music studio, developed technique called “phasing”
    • Tape piece “Come Out” 1966

    • records man saying “Come out to show them...” during riot
    • in addition to an excellent example of phasing technique, highlights the possibility of political, religious, etc. content in combination with minimalist music

    • late 60s and early 70s - acoustic works for like instruments
    • Piano Phase

    two pianos or two marimbas phasing a 12 note phrase
  34. John Adams
    • b. 1947
    • “looping” instead of phasing - principal technique in pure minimalist phase
    • 1987 - Nixon in China

    • commissioned and premiered by Houston Grand Opera
    • quick change between minimalist elements, as apposed to Reich (very slow)

    • considered a post-minimalist
    • postminimalism

    • early works show process music a la Reich/Riley
    • in the 1990s: progresses beyond this, incorporates minimalist techniques as a texture instead of as the pure musical sound
    • incorporation of quotations, ironic commentary, and other elements that align it with postmodernism

    first minimalist to receive pulitzer prize
  35. Process Music
    piece performed by a unchanging predetermined process
  36. Open form
    form to be determined by the performers
  37. Phasing
    two identical tracks playing at same time, one gradually speeds up or slows down
  38. Looping
    loops, cannons
  39. Postminimalism
    • early works show process music a la Reich/Riley
    • in the 1990s: progresses beyond this, incorporates minimalist techniques as a texture instead of as the pure musical sound
    • incorporation of quotations, ironic commentary, and other elements that align it with postmodernism
  40. Holy Minimalism
    • distinguished by a minimalist compositional aesthetic and a distinctly religious or mystical subject focus
    • Arvo Part
  41. Tintinnabulation Technique
    Arvo Part

    • two part texture
    • one part playing scalar/diatonic passages
    • one part arpeggiating the tonic triad
  42. Cantus in memoriam Benjamin Britten
    • Arvo Part
    • used tintinnabulation
    • holy minimalist work
  43. Gyorgy Ligeti
    1923-2006

    • Hungarian
    • as a student and immediately after in Hungary in the late 40s and early 50s writing “socialist realist” works - all choral settings of traditional Hungarian folk tunes
    • never wrote a ‘serial’ piece
    • left Hungary in 1956
    • ended up in Cologne Germany
    • WDR - Stockhausen, began working in electronic music studio and attended Darmstadt
    • in his early electronic pieces, he attempted to mimic speech and made up sounds that he connected to make a make-believe language
    • Artikulation - 1958 - Elektronische Musik

    • mimic dramatic situations between people
    • ironic representation of human interaction in music
  44. Micropolyphony
    • used by Ligety
    • 1960s: corresponded to American minimalism developments and the Fluxus movement
    • use of very close identical cannons
    • likens these procedures to the optical illusions especially those of MC Escher
    • Poeme symphonique - 100 metronomes

    1962

    next exploration: how to use these techniques for live performers?
  45. Adventures
    • 1962
    • - Ligety

    • mini oprea
    • uses lots of breathing, laughing, yelling sounds.
    • no actual words
  46. Pieces by Olivier Messiaen
    (L) Mode of Durations and Intensities
  47. Pieces by Pierre Boulez
    • (L) Structures, Book 1
    • (L) Le Marteau sans Maitre
    • (L) Re'pons
  48. Pieces by Karlheinz Stockhausen
    • (L) Kreuzspiel
    • (L) Gesang der Ju:nglinge
    • (NL) Hymnen
  49. Pieces by John Cage
    • (L) Sonatas and Interludes (No. 1)
    • (L) Six
    • (NL) Music of Changes
    • (NL) 4'33"
    • (NL) Number pieces ...
  50. Pieces by George Rochberg
    (L) String Quartet No. 3
  51. Pieces by Alfred Schnittke
    • (L) Concerto Grosso No. 1
    • (L) Concerto for Mixed Choir
  52. Pieces by Louis Andriessen
    (L) De staat
  53. Pieces by Terry Riley
    (NL) In C
  54. Pieces by Steve Reich
    • (L) Come Out
    • (L) Piano Phase
  55. Pieces by John Adams
    (L) Nixon in China
  56. Pieces by Arvo Parte
    (L) Cantus In Memorium of Benjamin Britten
  57. Pieces by Gyorgy Ligeti
    • (L) Continuum for Harpsichord
    • (L) Aventures
    • (L) Trio for Violin, Horn, and Piano
  58. Piano Only Pieces
    • Mode of Durations and Intensities - Messiaen
    • Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano - John Cage
    • Piano Phase - Reich
    • Continuum for Harpsichord - Ligeti
    • Structures por deux Pianos - Boulez
  59. Pieces with Vocals
    • Concerto for Mixed Choir - Alfred Schnittke
    • Nixon in China - John Adams
    • Aventures - Gyorgy Ligeti
    • Le Marteau sans Maitre - Boulez
    • De Staat - Louis Andriessen
  60. Percussion Only Pieces
    Six - John Cage
  61. Electronic (Weird) Pieces
    • Come Out - Reich
    • Gesang der Ju:nglinge
  62. Chamber Pieces
    • String Quartet No. 3 - Rochberg
    • Trio for Violin, Horn and Piano - Ligeti
  63. Orchestral Only Pieces
    • Kreuzspiel - Stockhausen
    • Re'pons - Boulez
    • Concerto Grosso - Schnittke
    • Cantus in Memorium of Benjamin Britten - Avro Parte
  64. SYMBOLISM: When and where? How it started? Techniques? Definition?
    • Early 20th Century, France
    • Extension of Romanticism
    • Lacking voice-leading, No half-step relationships
    • Conscious desire for the pleasure of music without the rules and predictability of common tonality.
  65. NATIONALISM: When and where? How it started? Techniques? Definition?
    • Early 20th Century, Hungary and Russia
    • Reflection of devotion of loyalties to ones nation in music
    • Folk tunes, incorporation of music from their country
  66. NEOCLASSICISM: When and where? How it started? Techniques? Definition?
    • Between WWI and WWII, Paris
    • Reaction against late Romanticism
    • Assimilated from Pre-Romantic ideas/forms
    • Rebirth of classical forms and techniques using modern tonalities
  67. TOTAL SERIALISM: When and where? How it started? Techniques? Definition?
    • 20s-30s, Vienna
    • Extension of Serialism
    • Quantifying duration of notes, dynamics, and articulation
    • Taking all emotion and conscious choices away from music
  68. MINIMALISM: When and where? How it started? Techniques? Definition?
    • 60s - USA and Europe
    • Reaction against expressionism and total serialism
    • Stripping compositional techniques down to the bare minimum
    • Extremely connected to visual arts; both use "less is more" concept
  69. SYMBOLISM: Who? What pieces? How did it relate?
    • Debussy - Pelleas et Melisande
    • Tired of Wagner's predictability, Debussy strived to create his own voice and get rid of common rules of tonality (getting rid of voice leading, no half step relations)
    • Satie - Trois Gymnopedies
    • Constantly avoiding leading tones, tonality by assertion, no V chords
  70. NATIONALISM: Who? What pieces? How did it relate?
    • Bartok - Kossuth
    • Used magyar nota ideas/Hungarian folk music
    • Shostakovich - Symphony No. 5
    • Changed they way he composed to better fit the socialist realist ideals; folk song recognizable by audience
  71. NEOCLASSICISM: Who? What pieces? How did it relate?
    • Stravinsky - Octet for Winds, Symphony of the Winds
    • Usage of trills and other classical stylistic nuances; rejected previous Russian ideas, used more classical forms
  72. TOTAL SERIALISM: Who? What pieces? How did it relate?
    • Messiaen - Modes of Durations and Intensities
    • Tried to actively take away his compositional choices; structure defined by predetermined elements. Father of total serialism
    • Boulez - student of Messiaen
    • Structures Book 1 - like Messiaen, also defined by predetermined elements
  73. MINIMALISM - Who? What pieces? How do they relate?
    • Reich - Piano Phase
    • Invented phasing technique; repeated simple ostinato that becomes phased
    • Riley - In C
    • father of minimalism; stripped compositions down to bare minimum, 53 short, simple segments that are at the discreation of the performer

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