Microbio Chapters 11 and 12

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Microbio Chapters 11 and 12
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2011-05-06 01:52:01
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Physical Chemical agents microbial control
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Microbio Chapters 11 and 12
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  1. Physical Agents
    i.e. Heat or Radiotion
  2. Chemical Agents
    i.e. disinfectants and antiseptics
  3. Highest resistance to microbial control
    • Prions
    • Bacterial endospores
  4. Moderate resistance to microbial control
    • Protozoan Cysts
    • Naked Viruses
    • Hep B
    • Polovirus
  5. Least resistant to microbial control
    • Fungal spores
    • eveloped viruses
    • yeasts
    • protozoan trophozoites
    • bacterial vegetative spores
  6. Bacterial Spores
    • considered most resistant
    • 18x's harder to destroy than vegetative cells
  7. Sterilization
    • Destroys or removes ALL viable microorganisms including viruses
    • For inanimate objects
    • usually accomplished through heat but also through some chemicals called sterilants
  8. Microbicidal
    • Kills microbes
    • Can be highly toxic to human cells
  9. Microbistasis
    • temporarily prevents cells from multiplying
    • not killed outright.
  10. Disinfection
    • Physical or chemical agent to destroy vegetative pathogens
    • NOT bacterial
    • For inanimate objects
  11. Sepsis
    Growith of microorganisms in blood and other tissues
  12. Asepsis
    PREVENTS entry of infectious agents into sterile tissues to prevent infection
  13. Microbial Load
    Microbial population
  14. Santization > Sterilization
  15. Degermation
    • Reduction of microbial load through mechanical means on living tissue
    • i.e. surgical hand soap and alcoholic wipes
  16. Microbicidal Agent
    With time and concentration targets the metabolic process in a cell
  17. Active cells die more quickly than older
    More metabolic activity to target versus less
  18. Effectiveness of agent governed by:
    • 1) # of Microorganisms- more means longer
    • 2) Nature of microorganisms in population- more variation means more resistance
    • 3) Temperature of pH in environment
    • 4) Concentration (dosage, intensity) of agent
    • 5) Mode of action- Kill or Inhibit
    • 6) Presens of solvents or interfering organic matter (i.e. blood, saliva, feces)
  19. Cellular targets of physical and chemical agents
    • 1) Cell Wall (blocks synthesis & surface is broken down)
    • 2) Cell membrane (2 way communication is disrupted- bad is let in and good not protected)
    • 3) Cellular synthetic processes (DNA & RNA)- (Vital protens inhibited)
    • 4) Proteins (Breaks down native state bonds)
  20. Temperature that exceeds maximum growth temperature is
    Microbicidal
  21. Tempuratures lower than minimum growth temperature are
    microbistatic
  22. Moist Heat
    • hot or boiling water
    • steam
    • 60 to 135 C
    • Lower temps and shorter exposure
  23. Dry Heat
    • Air with low moisture content heated by flame or electirc heating coil
    • 160 C and up
    • Higher heat and longer exposure protein
    • Dehydrates cell
  24. Thermal Death Time
    TDT
    Shortest length of time required to kill all microbes at a specified temperature
  25. Thermal Death Point
    TDP
    Lowest temperature required to kill all microbes in a sample in 10 minutes
  26. Moist Heat Control
    • 1) Steam under pressure- (most efficient pressure temp 15psi and 121C, auto clave)
    • 2) Non pressurized steam (treatment, incubation, treatment)
    • 3) Boiling Water- (disinfection only, easily recontaminated, non spore forming pathogens)
    • 4) Pasteurization- (Disinfection of beverages, 71.6 for 15 secs or 63-66 for 30 min. flash vs. batch)
  27. Inineration
    • Dry Heat
    • 800 to 6500 C
    • Reduces microbes, etc. by reducing to ashes and gases
  28. Dry Oven
    • usually electric
    • 12min to 4 hours
    • 150 to 180 C
  29. Desicated
    Dehydration
  30. Irradiation
    • Bombardment with radiation at cellular level
    • Absense of heat, thus cold/ low temp sterilization
  31. Ionizing Radiation
    • penetrates solid barrier
    • bombards cell
    • breaks DNA and mutates
    • Gamma rays, Xrays, high speed electrons
    • Food, anthrax
  32. Non Ionizing Radiation
    • enters cells
    • strikes molecules
    • Effects DNA through abnormal bonds
    • Disinfection for hospitals, schools, food prep
    • Ultra violiet radiation
  33. High Level Chemical Agents
    Kills endspores and are sterilants
  34. Intermediate Level Chemical Agents
    Kills fungal spores and resistant pathogens
  35. Low Level Chemical Agents
    • Kills:
    • Vegetative Bacteria
    • Vegetative Fungal Cells
    • Some Viruses
  36. Halogens
    Group VII
    • exert in non ionic state
    • Active ingredient in 1/3 of antimicrobial chemicals
  37. Hypochlorites
    • Halogen
    • Extensive use
    • santization and disinfection of food equipment, pools, spas, fresh foods
  38. Chloramines
    • Halogens
    • Better/ safer than pure chlorine
  39. Iodine
    • Halogens
    • Pungent blue and black chemical that forms brown-colored solutions
    • Apps: disinfects burned and infected skin
  40. Iodophors
    • Halogen
    • Used to prepare skin and mucus membrane

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