COG Psych

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COG Psych
2011-05-06 09:23:23

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  1. Language
    a shared symbolic system for communication
  2. The symbol system is _______
    shared by all users of a language culture
  3. Linguistic Universals are
    characteristics that are common to all known languages
  4. Linguistic Universals were proposed by
  5. Linguistic Universals include
    • Semanticity
    • Arbitrariness
    • Flexibility
    • Naming
    • Displacement
    • Productivity
    • Grammer
  6. Semanticity means that
    language conveys meaning
  7. Language Arbitrariness means that
    there is no inherent connection between words and what they refer to
  8. Language Arbitrariness - exceptionq
    onomonopia - buzzz, hmmm
  9. Language Flexibility means that
    there is a flexibility of symbols (words)
  10. Naming means that
    we give everything a name
  11. Language Displacement means that
    language permits us to talk about times other than the present
  12. Language Productivity means that
    an infinite number of utterances are possible in any language
  13. Grammer
    the complete set of rules that will generate all the acceptable utterances and will not generate any unacceptable ill-formed ones
  14. Grammer operates at 3 levels
    • 1) Phonology - sound
    • 2) Syntax - word order, grammaticality
    • 3) Semantics - accessing and combining word meanings into a meaningful whole
  15. Linguistic Competence
    the internalized knowledge of language and it's rules that fully fluent speakers of a language have.
  16. Linguistic Performance
    the actual language behavior a speaker generates, the string of sounds and words that the speaker utters
  17. Who came up with the idea of Linguistic Competence versus Performance?
  18. the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis's maing concept is
    linguistic relativity
  19. linguistic relativity means
    the assertion that the speakers of different languages have differing cognitive systems and that these different cognitive systems influence the ways in which people speaking the various languages think about the world
  20. Phonemes are
    the basic sounds of speech AKA speech sounds and is a category of language sounds that are treated as the same despite physical differences among the sounds
  21. How many phonemes are there?
    about 200 total
  22. How many phonemes does English use?
  23. Are phonemes randomly combined to create words?
  24. Problem of Invariance
  25. Is the stream of spoken speech what we perceive it to be?
  26. syntax
    refers to the way in which users of a particular language put words together to form sentences.
  27. Transformational Grammar?
    Chomsky. Involves the study of transformational rules that guide th ways in which underlying propositions can be rearranges to form various phrase structures
  28. Transformational Grammer - “The patio resembles a junkyard”
    meaning the patio is a mess, not that it resembles an actual junkyard
  29. What is the difference between a “deep structure” and a “surface structure”?
    The deep structure represented the core semantic relations of a sentence, and was mapped on to the surface structure (which followed the phonological form of the sentence very closely)
  30. What are transformational rules?
    a rule that takes an input typically called the Deep Structure and changes it in some restricted way to result in a Surface Structure
  31. mental lexicon
    our mental dictionary of language of words and their meanings
  32. semantics
    the study of meaning of a language
  33. morphemes
    • the smallest unit of language that has meaning
    • example - cars is made of two 1:car 2:s
  34. polysemy
    many words have multiple meanings
  35. interaction between syntax and semantics
    syntax is sensitive to the accessibility of words in that more accessible words appear earlier in a sentence. Semantic knowledge can overpower sybtax
  36. Fillenbaum
    in 1974 his study gave participants oddly ordered sentences and told participants to rephrase them. 60% of people automatically re-ordered them to make them normal i.e. john dressed and had a bath became john had a bath and got dressed. of those who corrected, 50% did not realize that the original sentence was odd.
  37. Incubation period
    the period of time when we have to quit working on the problem.. allows our brain to take a "breather" when trying to solve hard problems
  38. What are some difficulties that we can encounter when problem solving?
    • a behavioral approach cannot account for the AHA! experience.
    • also functional fixedness highlighted the difficulties people have with problem solving
  39. Insight problem
    usually thought of as a deep, useful understanding of the nature of something, especially with a difficult problem
  40. Analagy problem
    confronts the relationship between 2 similar situations, problems or concepts.
  41. Gick and Holyoak
    in 1980 they conducted the study using the captain capturing the castle stories. if the story given to the Pp was related to the next problem about radiation then the Pp were more likely to figure out the radiation problem
  42. Basics of problem solving
    • Goal Directedness
    • Sequence of Operations
    • Cognitive Operations
    • Subgoal Decomposition
    • Problem Space
    • Initial State
    • Operators
    • Goal State
  43. Subgoal Decomposition
    an immediate goal on the way to a solution.
  44. Problem Space
    the problem solver's mental representation of the problem and includes the initial, intermediate, and goal states as well as knowledge
  45. Initial State
    problem as it is presented at the beginning
  46. Operators
    set of legal operations or moves that can be performed during problem solving
  47. Goal State
    solution or ginal state of the problem
  48. means-end analysis - explain
    the problem is solved by repeatedly determining the difference between the current state and the goal state and then finding and applying an operator that reduces this difference. *uses smaller problems as a means to an end
  49. means-end analysis - steps
    • 1) set up the goal or subgoal
    • 2) look for difference between current state and goal state/subgoal state
    • 3) look for an operation that will reduce or eliminate this difference
    • 4) apply operator
    • 5) apply steps 2-5 repeatedly until all subgoals and final goal are acheived
  50. Hill Climbing
    variation of means-end analysis. involves moving toward the goal state in incremental steps but not working backward.
  51. Pollack and Pickett
    • (1964) Recorded several conversations.
    • Subjects in their experiment had to identify the words in the conversation.
    • When Pollack & Pickett spliced individual words out of the conversation and then presented them auditorily, subjects identified the correct word only 47% of the time.
    • The longer the segment of speech from the conversation played, the more intelligible the individual words became. Speech analysis is both Bottom Up and Top Down. The conceptual knowledge helps to aid the identification of basic phonetic utterances.