MicroBio 1, Quiz 2

Card Set Information

Author:
chiroclown
ID:
84178
Filename:
MicroBio 1, Quiz 2
Updated:
2011-05-07 00:23:21
Tags:
Chapters
Folders:

Description:
Chapters 11 and 12
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user chiroclown on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Physical Agents for Microbial Control
    i.e. heat or radiation
  2. Chemical Agents for Microbial Control
    i.e. disinfectants and antiseptics
  3. Highest Resistance to Microbial Control
    • Prions
    • Bacterial Endospores
  4. Moderate Resistance to Microbial Control
    • Protozoan Cysts
    • Naked viruses
    • Hep B
    • Polovirus
  5. Least Resistance to Microbial Control
    • Fungal Spores
    • Enveloped Viruses
    • Yeasts
    • Protozoan Trophozoites
    • BacterialVegetative Spores
  6. Bacterial Endospores
    • Most resistant to control
    • 18x's harder to destroy than counter part vegetative cells
  7. Sterilization
    • Removes ALL viable microorganisms including viruses
    • For inanimate objects
    • Usually heat but also some chemicals called sterilants
  8. Microbicidal
    Kills microbes
  9. Microbistasis
    Stops reproduction of microbes
  10. Disinfection
    • Physical or chemical agent to destroy vegetative pathogens but NOT bacterial endospores
    • On inanimate objects
  11. Microbial Load
    Microbial Population
  12. Sanitazation
    • Removes debris, microorganisms and toxins
    • Reduces infection and spoilage
  13. Sanitization > Sterilization
  14. Degermation
    • Reduction of microbial load through mechanical means on living tissue
    • Surgical hand soap, alcohol wipes
  15. Microbial Agent
    • Targets metabolic process in a cell
    • Time & Concentration
  16. Active cells die more quickly than older
    More metabolic activity vs. less
  17. Effectiveness of agent governed by:
    • 1) # of microorganisms (more contaminants, longer to destroy)
    • 2) Nature of microorganisms in population (more variation, higher resistance)
    • 3) Temp of pH in environment
    • 4) Concentration (dosage, intensity) of agent
    • 5) Mode of action (kill or inhibit)
    • 6) Presence of solvents, interfering organic matter and inhibitors (i.e. blood, saliva, feces)
  18. Cellular targets of physical & chemical agents
    • 1) cell wall (block synthesis, digest it, breaks down surface)
    • 2) cel membrane (disrupts 2 way communication when disrupted. cannot prevent loss of molecules nor bar entry of danger)
    • 3) cellular processes (Inhibits formation and proteins required for growth)
    • 4) Protein Function (Breaks down native state bonds)
    • 4) proteins
  19. Temperatures that exceeds maximum growth temperature:
    Micrbicidal
  20. Temperatures lower than minimum growth temperature:
    Microbistatic
  21. Moist Heat
    • Hot water, boiling water, steam
    • 60 to 135 c
    • Lower temps and shorter exposure
  22. Dry Heat
    • air w/ low moisture content that has been heated
    • 160 c
    • higher heat and longer exposure protein
    • Dehydrates cell
  23. Thermal Death Time
    TDT
    Shortest length of time required to kill all test microbes at a specified temperature
  24. Thermal Death Point
    TDP
    Lowest temperature required to kill all microbes in a sample in 10 minutes
  25. Common methods of moist heat control
    • 1) Steam under pressure (15psi, 121c, most efficient, autoclave)
    • 2) Nonpressurized steam (treatment, incubation, treatment. intermittent sterilization. for heat sensitive culture)
    • 3) Boiling water (disinfection only, easily recontaminated, good for non sporeforming pathogens)
    • 4) Pasteurization (disinfection of beverages. 71.6 for 15 sec *Flash*, or 63-66 for 30 *Batch*)
  26. Incineration
    • Dry Heat
    • 800-6,500 c
    • Reduces microbes to ashes and gas
    • Metals and heat-resistant glass materials
  27. Dry oven
    • Usually electric
    • 12 min to 4 hours
    • 150c-180c
  28. Desicated
    Dehydration
  29. Radiation
    • Energy emitted from atomic activities and dispersed at high velocity
    • gamma, x, ultraviolet
  30. Irradiation
    • Bombardment with radiation at cellular level
    • Absence of heat- thus cold/ low temp sterilization
  31. Ionizing Radiation
    • Penetrates solid barrier
    • Bombards cell
    • Breaks DNA and mutates
    • gamma, x, high speed electrons
    • Food and anthrax
  32. Non Ionizing Radiation
    • Enters cells
    • Strikes molecules
    • Effects DNA through abnormal bonds
    • Ultraviolet radiation
    • Disinfection
    • Hospitals, schools, food prep, drinking water, purifying liquids
  33. High Level Chemical Agents
    Kills Endospores and are sterilant
  34. Intermediate Level Chemical Agents
    Kill fungal spores and resistant pathogens
  35. Low Level Chemical Agents
    Kills vegetative bacteria, fungal cells and some viruses
  36. Halogens in Chemical Agents
    • Group VII
    • Exert microbicidal in nonionic state
    • Active ingredient in 1/3 of antimicrobial chemical
  37. Hypochlorites
    • Halogen
    • Extensively used
    • Sanitization & disinfection of food equipment, pools, spas, water, fresh foods
  38. Iodine
    • Halogens
    • Pungent blue/black chemical that forms brown colored solution
    • Disinfects inanimate objects and treatment for burned/ infected skin
  39. Iodophors
    Used to prepare skin & mucas membrane
  40. Phenolics
    • strongly microbicidal but not reliably sporicidal
    • toxic- cannot be used as antispetics
  41. Applications of Phenolics
    • general disinfection of drains, cesspools and animal quarters
    • not a medical germicide
    • lysol, soaps, antibacterial product in household products
  42. Chlorohexidine
    • 2 Phenolic rings
    • Bactericidal for gram negative and positive
  43. Alcohols as antimicrobial agent
    • colorless hydrocarbons
    • ethyl and isopropyl suitable for microbial control
    • various impacts dependig on concentration
    • lower concentration is greater killing
    • 100% is only inhibitor
  44. Applications of alcohols
    • germicidal
    • nonirritating
    • inexpensive
  45. Hydrogen Peroxide
    • colorless, caustic liquid that decomposes in presence of light, metals
    • Applications: antispetic for wounds,
  46. Detergents
    • Poloar molecules that act as surfactants
    • limited mocrbicidal power
    • soaps
  47. Heavy metal Compounds
    • mercury, silver, gold, copper, arsenic, zinc
    • applied in microbial control over several centuries
    • high atomic weight
    • antimocrobial effects in exceedingly small amounts (oligodynamic)
    • Brings metabolism to a sand still
  48. Aldehydes as Germicides
    • CHO functioning group on terminal carbon
    • glutaraldehyde
    • formaldehyde
  49. Antimicrobial Therapy Involves:
    • 1) Microbes Sensitivity
    • 2) Drug's toxicity
    • 3) Health of patient
  50. Selectively Toxic
    • Drugs should kill or inhibit the growth of microbes with out simultanously damaging host tissue.
    • Best block synthesis of the cell wall
  51. Targets in an Actively Dividing Cells
    • 1) Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    • 2) Breakdown of cell membrane structure or function
    • 3) Inhibition of structures and functions of DNA & RNA
    • 4) Inhibition of protein synthesis
    • 5) Blocks key metabolic pathways
  52. Drugs spectrum
    Particular range of activity
  53. Narrow Spectrum
    • Effective on small range of cell types
    • Gram + only
  54. Medium-Spectrum
    Effective on both G+ and G- but not all of them
  55. Broad Spectrum
    • Works on G+ and G-
    • Attachs ribosomes that are found in most pathogens
  56. Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis
    • Considered bactericidal
    • Active in young cells becous of active matabolism
    • Penicillins & Cephalosporins
  57. Breakdown of cell membrane structure or function
    • Damaged membrane = death from disruption in metabolism or lysis
    • Do not have to be actively dividing to be destroyed
  58. Inhibition of structures and functions of DNA & RNA
    • Inhibits replication by stopping transcription
    • Blocks replication of viruses
    • AZT and Acyclovir
  59. Inhibition of protein synthesis
    • Ribosome mRNA complex
    • Misreading of mRNA leads to abnormal proteins
  60. Blocks key metabolic pathways
    Drugs mimic substrate and enters into competitive inhibition
  61. How penicillan works
    • Cells continue to divide but without a cell wall
    • Shape is distorted eventually after division membrane ruptures and eliminates themselves
  62. Chemotherapy
    Looks for enzymes to shut down
  63. Half Life
    How long until all substructures are gone?
  64. Isotopes in Half Life
    • Stability rate changes
    • Los of core energy
    • Nucleus changes and decays

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview