Chapter14.txt

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melancholyofcj
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84184
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Chapter14.txt
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2011-05-06 10:29:05
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Chapter Microbiology Chang
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Chapter 14 Dr.Chang
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  1. What is phylogeny?
    • Evolutionary history of a group of organisms
    • -inferred indirectly from nucleotide sequence data
  2. What are chronometers (molecular clocks)?
    Certain genes and proteins that are measures of evolutionary change.
  3. What are the most widely used ribosomal subunits for molecular clocks?
    16S rRNA (for Prokaryotes) ; 18S rRNA (for Eukaryotes)
  4. What are the major assumptions about the chronometer approach?
    Nucleotide changes occur at a constant rate, are generally neutral and random
  5. Nucleotide changes that occur at a constant rate and are generally neutral and random are assumptions of the ______ approach.
    Chronometer (molecular clocks)
  6. What are the characteristics of the small subunit rRNA genes?
    • -Found in all domains of life
    • -Functionally constant
    • -Sufficiently conserved (change slowly)
    • -Sufficient length
  7. Small subunit RNA genes are sufficiently conserved, meaning that they ______
    Change slowly
  8. What is the procedure for comparative RNA sequencing?
    • 1) Amplification of the gene encoding small subunit (SSU) rRNA
    • 2) Sequencing of the amplified gene
    • 3) Analysis of sequence in reference to other sequences
  9. The first step of comparative RNA sequencing is ____
    Amplification of the gene encoding SSU rRNA
  10. The second step of comparative RNA sequencing is ____
    Sequencing of the amplified gene
  11. The third step of comparative RNA sequencing is ____
    Analysis of sequence in reference to other sequences
  12. What is the phylogenetic tree?
    Graphic illustration of the relationships among sequences
  13. In the phylogenetic tree, branch length represents what?
    The number of changes that have occured along that branch
  14. In the phylogenetic tree, what do the branches define?
    The order of descent and ancestry of the nodes
  15. What is BLAST?
    Basic Local Alignment Search Tool
  16. What is BLAST used for?
    • -Aligns query sequences with those in GenBank database
    • -Helpful in identifying gene sequences
  17. What is classification?
    Organization of organisms into progressively more iclusive groups on the basis of either phenotypic similarity or evolutionary relationship.
  18. _____ is the organization of organisms into progressively more iclusive groups on the basis of either phenotypic similarity or evolutionary relationship.
    Classification
  19. Prokaryotes are given descriptive genus names and species epithets following the ______ of nomenclature used throughout biology.
    Binomial system
  20. What is the binomial system?
    System of descriptive genus names and species epithets used for Prokaryotes.
  21. Spell the extended genus name of E. coli
    Escherichia coli
  22. All genus and species names are ____
    Italicized

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