test 1.txt

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melancholyofcj
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84185
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test 1.txt
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2011-05-06 10:30:05
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Test microbiology Chang
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Test 1 Chang
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  1. ´╗┐Not only microorganisms play important roles in medicine. Agriculture, and industry, but they also are excellent models for understanding cellular processes in both unicellular and multicellular organisms.
    True
  2. Which of the fallowing is a characteristic of all living systems (microbial cellular life)?
    • Evolution
    • communication
    • reproduction
  3. Which of the fallowing statements is true?
    • Insulin is and example of products generated by microbes using genetic engineering
    • Microorganisms can change the characteristics of their habitat
    • More microorganisms in nature are beneficial than harmful
  4. To which group of microorganisms is the generation of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere attributed?
    Cyanobacteria
  5. ______ that live in nodules on legume plants (e.g. soybean) can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia.
    Nitrogen fixing bacteria
  6. Which of the fallowing statements is true?
    Robert koch identified causative agents of anthrax and turberculosis
  7. According to Kock's postulate after you observe the suspected microbe in the disease organisms for the first time under the microscope, what must you do next?
    Grow the organism is pure culture
  8. which of the fallowing reasons describes correctly?
    Louis pasteur discovered that alcoholic fermentation was a biologically mediated process
  9. Which of the fallowing microscopes does use visable light to illuminate cells?
    • Bright-field
    • phase-conrast
    • fluoresence
  10. What is the advantage of phase contrast microscopy over staining?
    Can view live cells
  11. In gram positive and negative cells, _____ makes the Gram stain possible to distinguish one from the other and ________ can be used for counterstaining.
    Peptidoglycan; safranin
  12. If you wish to generate a three-dimensional image of a biofilm, which type of microscopy would you use?
    Confocal scanning laser microscopy
  13. What kind of microscopy would you use to examine a specimen coated with a thin film of gold?
    Scanning electron miroscopy
  14. The process by which mitochondria and chloroplasts originated from descendants of Bacteria is called ______ because they contain _______ chromosome.
    Endosymbiosis; circular
  15. Disease-causing pathogenic prokaryotes are found exclusively among bacteria.
    True
  16. The hyperthermophiles are mostly a part of what group?
    Crenarchaeota
  17. The highest level of biological classification is domain. Three distinct lineages of domains include prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells, and viruses.
    False
  18. Which of the fallowing statements is true?
    • Lichens are an example of a mutualistic relationship between two groups of protists
    • algae are photosynthetic partner organisms in lichens
    • Eukaryotc microorganisms are collectively known as protists
  19. rRNA is an excellent molecule for determining phylogeny. Which of the following steps correctly describes a procedure of phylogenetic studies?
    Isolation of DNA, Amplification of rRNA gene, Sequencing, Generation of phylogenetic tree
  20. complementary base pairs of DNA are held together by ______
    hydrogen bonds
  21. Whats are thee things that make up nucleotides and what two things make up nucleosides?
    Nucleotides: Cs sugar, phosphate, nitrogenous base Nucleoside: Cs, sugar, phosphate
  22. Which of the fallowing statements are true about hydrophobic interactions?
    • Hydrophobic interactions are weak bonds that occur when nonpolar molecules, or nonpolar regions of molecules, associate tightly in a polar environment.
    • Hydrophobic interactions play important riles in enzymes binding substrates
    • hydrophobic interactions play important riles in protein conformation
  23. The most abundant class of macromolecule by dry weight in a prokaryotic cell is the nucleic acid including DNA and RNA
    false
  24. What are the reason why the polarity of water is important?
    • Many macromolecules are also polar and readily dissolve in water
    • Forces nonpolar substances to aggregate
    • Makes water cohesive
  25. Which of the fallowing correctly describes regarding polysaccharides?
    Monomeric units in polysaccharides are linked by glycosidic bonds
  26. Ethers are found in the lipids of ______.
    Archaea only
  27. What statements does correctly describe the role of nucleotide?
    • Major component of nucleic acids
    • carriers of sugars in biosynthesis of polysaccharides
    • regulatory molecule for certain enzymes
  28. A peptide bond is formed when amino group(-NH2) and _____ join together and water is ____.
    Carboxylic acid group, released
  29. In the secondary structure of polypeptides, different folding provides different properties. Which describes this
    Alfa-helix provides more flexibility and beta-sheet provides more rifidity
  30. What properly describes protein denaturing?
    Protein denaturation occurs in either reversible or irreversible reactions
  31. Which of the fallowing is true?
    In general, lipids in the archaeal membrane lack fatty acids
  32. If you had a cell with the structure listed below what would be the outermost layer?
    Slime layer
  33. which type of cell would be affected by lysozyme?
    Gram-positive bacteria
  34. What does not correctly describes the transport system?
    The energy source used by lac permease to transport lactose across the cytoplasmic membrane is ATP
  35. Ketodeoxyoctonate is a sugar found in _____ regions of LPS and Toxiccomponent of LPS is found in _____ region.
    Core polysaccharide; lipid A
  36. A similarity between pseudomurein and peptidoglycan includes _____
    N-acetylglucosamine(NAG)
  37. The digilycerol tetaether molecule within the membrane structure of the ______ yeilds a lipid and _____.
    Archaea/monolayer
  38. Which of the fallowing is involved in twitching motility and genetic exchange between cells?
    Pili
  39. Prokaryotes that lack cell walls include _____.
    Mycoplasmas and Thermoplasmas.
  40. Which of the fallowing correctly describes endospores?
    • They enable organisms to endure extremes of temperature, drying, and nutrient depletion
    • They are complex structure contaning dipicolinic acid that is absent from vegetative cells
    • Endospore cycle: activation, germination, outgrowth
  41. Which of the fallowing is true regarding microbial locomotion?
    • In chemotaxis, bacteria respond to temporal, but not spatial, difference in chemical concentrations
    • Flagella increase or decrease rotational speed in relation to strength of proton motive force
    • In hydrotaxis, bacteria respond water.
    • In osmotaxis, bacteria respond to ionic strength
  42. The three major functions of cytoplasmic membrane in prokaryotic cells include permeability barrier, protein anchor, and ______.
    energy conservation
  43. A phosphorylated polyachohol found in the cells wall of some gram-positive bacteria is called _____.
    teichoic acid

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