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For an alkali poisoning what is the first thing to do
Dilute with water or milk
pH level goal when flushing out the eyes
Where should the poision control number be located
- outside sickbay
- outside the antidote locker
You should train all non medical personal in emergency procedures dealing with Poisoning cases
Give some reasons to do a gastric lavage
- Ingestion of CNS depressant
- Collection of gastric contents
If a patient inhales an acid what is the TX for it?
- Fresh air
- Treat for pulmonary edema
What is the treatment of an ingested alkali/acid poisoning
- Dilute with H2O or milk, 200ml
- numb with viscous lidocaine
What is produced by bacterial action on sewage
Hydrogen sulfide gas
It is characterized by a rotten egg odor and has similar affects as cyanide poisoning
Hydrogen sulfide gas
A pt that is vasodilated from tx of poisoning, to prevent hypotension what would you give
What is the primary tx action for poisoning
A poisoin that produces an irritation or inflamation
What are the contraindications for emisis
- corresive ingestion
- petroleum distinalate injestion
- convulsion causing esophageal blowout
what is the correlation of in and out for gastric levage
What goes in should equal what comes out
What is something that soothes irritated tissue from
injestion of poisons and name an example?
- b. Egg whites beaten in 500 ml of water or milk
- c. Thin mixture of flour or starch with water
If an alkali gets into the eyes what is the Tx
Flush eyes till pH 7.0
Tx for Isopropyl alcohol, when should you not inducE vomiting
If respiratory depression is present
What is not an affective tx for isopropyl alcohol
TX for hydrocarbons
A Tx for methanol ingestion which will prevent metabolism
Fish poisoning caused by red tide and usually happens at certain times of the year primarily tropical fish
Rattle snakes, copperheads, and water moccosins are what type of snakes
Crotalidae (pit vipers)
What is a main S/S of Hydrophidae (sea snake) venom
Rapid ascending paralysis
TX for marine life envenimation when the antidote is not available
Hot water neutralizes venom
- Recluse spiders
- cytotoxic venom
TX for loxosceles bites
Cut out necrotic tissue
S/S for tynganaria bite
Blister will rupture within 36 hours
What is the TX for a jelly fish sting
Meat tenderizer, papaine
What is the amount of calories that should be ingested in a cold enviroment
tx for bends/ Cassion disease (decompression sickness)
MAjor concern for salt water aspiration
Affects on salt water sulfactant
Defining temp for heat stroke
While diving pt notes sinus pain while submerged and blood or serosinus fluid in mask
What antidote do you give for opiate poisening
Narcan (naloxone) 2mg IV Q3min
What is the TX for barbituate poisoning?
- ConScious-Activated charcoal lavage
- Unconscious- vitals, neuro checks, R+ET suctioning, I-O
What is the antidote for somebody having anticholinergictoxicity (such as atropine/tricyclics)?
- Physostigmine salicylates 0.5-2 mg IV initially
- over 5 minutes; repeat Q30-60mins PRN
What are some mild signs and symptoms of organophosphate
- a. Substernal discomfort
- b. Anxiety
- c. Tremor
What is the antidote treatment for organophosphate toxicity?
- a. Atropine 2 mg IM Q5-10mins
- b. Pralidoxime (2-PAM) 1 gm over 5-10 minutes
What do you give for treatment of amphetamines?
Diazepam 5 mg IV
What type of poison directly destroys tissue
This is a poisonous substance secreted by an animal or
This describes the quality or degree of being poisonous.
This is any substance which when ingested, inhaled, applied (topically), injected, or developed within the body in small amounts, may cause structural damage or functional disturbance.
What is the quickest method to remove contents from the GI tract, but is no longer routinely used?
To initialize emesis, what do you give a patient?
- 15-30 cc’s of Syrup of Ipecac
- b. 1-2 glasses of room temperature water
What is the antidote for acetaminophen?
What is the antidote for hydrofluoric acid?
What is the antidote for hydrogen sulfide?
Amyl nitrite ampule, 300 mg IV, slow infusion
What do you give for somebody suffering a seizure after
What snakes are elapidae?
- a. Corals
- b. Mambas
- c. Cobras
What is considered a helodermae?
This type of spider is found in 25 states and worldwide,
inhabit dark quiet areas, have medium dark to yellow color with a violin shape on their back and has cytotoxic venom.
What types of fish are classified as Coelenterates
- a. Corals
- b. Sea anemones
- c. Jellyfish
- d. Portuguese Man O’War
How does the puncture wound look for the blue ringed
2 small puncture wounds
What temperature does the water have to be for treating octopus wounds?
113-122 degrees F
What is another name for an Echinoderm?
How does the wound look for an Echinoderm “bite”?
Black and blue” (characteristic)
What are the different venomous spiny fish?
- a. Stone fish
- b. Zebra fish
- c. Lion fish
What medications do you avoid to prevent cold injuries
because they promote peripheral vascularity?
- b. Thorazine
- c. Barbiturates
- d. CNS depressants
What type of hypothermia has a temperature of 94-97 degrees?
What type of hypothermia has a temperature of 86-94
How does a patient present with mild hypothermia?
- Conscious, but mild to moderate clouding
- b. Shivering is present, but diminished
How does a patient present with moderate hypothermia?
- Severe clouding, may be unconscious
- b. Shivering replaced by muscle rigidity
For external re-warming, what must the temperature of the bath water be
How warm should the oxygen be for heated humidified
This is a result of intermittent exposure to temperatures above freezing accompanied by high humidity (32-35 degrees F)
53.This is a complication of Chillblains after 12 hours to
3 days of exposure that affects finger, toes, and ears without freezing?
What are the two phases of cold water immersion syndrome
- Hyperemic – hot with intense burning
- Vasospastic – pale or cyanotic with diminished
When the skin is red and yields to pressure, what would
you diagnose them with?
First degree frostbite
A patient presents with white and cold skin, that yields to pressure. What is their diagnosis?
Second degree frostbite
57.How does a patient present with third degree frostbite?
- Deep reddish-purple skin with or without blistering
- b. Vesicles are deep and contain blood
The skin is hard and white in this
Fourth degree frostbite
How can you prevent a heat injury?
- Physical conditioning
- b. Fluid and salt intake c.
- Acclimatization (8-10 days)
- d. Proper clothing
- e. Avoid alcohol and CNS depressants
- f. Avoid fatigue and infections
- g. Drink water
This condition is due to inadequate or collapse of peripheral circulation secondary to salt depletion and dehydration where you only take in 1-2 liters per hour and usually occurs in those with underlying disease.
This is a true medical emergency characterized by uncontrolled elevation of core body temp due to the failure of the hypothalamus.
With this, the body temp is 106 or higher and the skin
is hot, dry and flushed.
What is the sequence of events for drowning?
- b. Laryngospasm
- c. Fluid aspiration ineffective circulation
- d. Brain injury
- e. Brain death (5-10 minutes)
This is an occupational hazard of divers where dissolved
gases (nitrogen) saturate tissues from an increase in water pressure, escape as gas bubbles during ascent.
What gas saturates the tissues in decompression
By how much does the water pressure increase by when you dive?
One atmosphere every 33 feet
This is due to gas entering the arterial system and
becomes a blockage or emboli; CNS and heart are the most susceptible.
Arterial gas embolism (AGE)
71.What are the signs and symptoms of AGE?
- Sudden onset
- Paralysis or weakness
- Blurred vision
- Chest pain
How do you treat somebody suffering from an AGE?
- Immediate recompression
This is a collapsed lung.
What are the signs and symptoms of a pneumothorax?
- Sudden onset of chest pain radiating to the
- shoulder or back
- Diminished or absent breath sounds
- Paradoxical respirations
What are the signs and symptoms of a pulmonary embolism?
- Abrupt onset
- Hemoptysis (most common complaint)