Ch 16 bio

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Ch 16 bio
2011-05-06 18:16:13

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  1. acrosome
    cap at the anterior end of a sperm that partially covers the nucleus and contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg
  2. birth control method
    prevents either fertilization or implantation of an embryo in the uterine lining
  3. birth control pill
    oral contraceptive containing estrogen and progesterone
  4. bulbourethral gland
    either of two small structures located below the prostate gland in males; each adds secretions to semen
  5. cervix
    narrow end of the uterus, which projects into the vagina
  6. chancre
    sore that appears on the skin; first sign of syphilis
  7. chlamydia
    sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis; can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease
  8. circumcision
    removal of the prepuce (foreskin) of the penis
  9. contraceptive
    medication or device used to reduce the chance of pregnancy
  10. contraceptive implant
    birth control method using synthetic progesterone; prevents ovulation by disrupting the ovarian cycle
  11. contraceptive injection
    birth control method using progesterone or estrogen and progesterone together; prevents ovulation by disrupting the ovarian cycle
  12. contraceptive vaccine
    under development, this birth control method immunizes against the hormone HCG, crucial to maintaining implantation of the embryo
  13. corpus luteum
    yellow body that forms in the ovary from a follicle that has discharged its secondary oocyte; it secretes progesterone and some estrogen
  14. diaphragm
    dome-shaped horizontal sheet of muscle and connective tissue that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. also, a birth control device consisting of a soft rubber or latex cup that fits over the cervix
  15. egg
    female gamete having the haploid number of chromosomes fertilized by a sperm, the male gamete
  16. endometrium
    mucous membrane lining the interior surface of the uterus
  17. epididymis
    coiled tubule next to the testes where sperm mature and may be stored for a short time
  18. erectile dysfunction
    failure of the penis to achieve or maintain erection
  19. estrogen
    female sex hormone that helps maintain sex organs and secondary sex characteristics
  20. female condom
    large polyurethane tube with a flexible ring that fits onto the cervix. functions as a contraceptive and helps minimize the risk of transmitting infection
  21. fimbria
    small bristlelike fiber on the surface of a bacterial cell, which attaches bacteria to a surface
  22. follicle
    structure in the ovary that produces a secondary oocyte and the hormones estrogen and progesterone
  23. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the development of an ovarian follicle in a female or the production of sperm in a male
  24. gamete
    haploid sex cell; the egg or a sperm, which join in fertilization to form a zygote
  25. gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
  26. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
    hormone produced by the chorion that functions to maintain the uterine lining
  27. implantation
    attachment and penetration of the embryo into the lining of the uterus (endometrium)
  28. infertility
    inability to have as many children as desired
  29. interstitial cell
    hormone-secreting cell located between the seminiferous tubules of the testes
  30. intrauterine device (IUD)
    birth control device consisting of a small piece of molded plastic inserted into the uterus; believed to alter the uterine environment so that fertilization does not occur.
  31. luteinizing hormone (LH)
    hormone that controls the production of testosterone by interstitial cells in males and promotes the development of the corpus luteum in females
  32. male condom
    sheath used to cover the penis during sexual intercourse; used as a contraceptive and, if latex, to minimize the risk of transmitting infection
  33. menopause
    termination of the ovarian and uterine cycles in older women
  34. menstruation
    loss of blood and tissue from the uterus at the end of a uterine cycle
  35. oogenesis
    production of an egg in females by the process of meiosis and maturation
  36. ovarian cycle
    monthly follicle changes occurring in the ovary that control the level of sex hormones in the blood and the uterine cycle
  37. ovary
    female gonad that produces eggs and the female sex hormones
  38. oviduct
    tube that transports eggs to the uterus; also called uterine tube
  39. ovulation
    release of a secondary oocyte from the ovary; if fertilization occurs, the secondary oocyte becomes an egg
  40. pap test
    analysis done on cervical cells for detection of cancer
  41. penis
    external organ in males through which the urethra passes; also serves as the organ of sexual intercourse
  42. placenta
    structure that forms from the chorion and the uterine wall and allows the embryo, and then the fetus, to acquire nutrients and rid itself of wastes
  43. progesterone
    female sex hormone that helps maintain sex organs and secondary sex characteristics
  44. prostate gland
    gland located around the male urethra below the urinary bladder; adds secretions to semen
  45. scrotum
    pouch of skin that encloses the testes
  46. semen
    thick, whitish fluid consisting of sperm and secretions from several glands of the male reproductive tract
  47. seminal vesicle
    convoluted structure attached to the vas deferens near the base of the urinary bladder in males, adds secretions to semen
  48. seminiferous tubule
    long, coiled structure contained within chambers of the testis; where sperm are produced
  49. sertoli cell
    cell associated with developing germ cells in seminiferous tubule; secretes fluid into seminiferous tubule and mediates hormonal effects on tubule
  50. sperm
    male gamete having a haploid number of chromosomes and the ability to fertilize an egg, the female gamete
  51. spermatogenesis
    production of sperm in males by the process of meiosis and maturation
  52. testes
    male gonads that produce sperm and the male sex hormones
  53. testosterone
    male sex hormone that helps maintain sexual organs and secondary sex characteristics
  54. tubal ligation
    method for preventing pregnancy in which the uterine tubes are cut and sealed
  55. urethra
    tubular structure that receives urine from the bladder and carries it to the outside of the body
  56. uterine cycle
    monthly occurring changes in the characteristics of the uterine lining (endometrium)
  57. uterus
    organ located in the female pelvis where the fetus develops; also called the womb
  58. vagina
    organ that leads from the uterus to the vestibule and serves as the birth canal and organ of sexual intercourse in females
  59. vas deferens
    tube that leads from the epididymis to the urethra in males
  60. vasectomy
    method for preventing pregnancy in which the vasa deferentia are cut and sealed
  61. vulva
    external genitals of the female that surround the opening of the vagina
  62. zygote
    diploid cell formed by the union of sperm and egg; the product of fertilization