Ch. 18

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Kymberli
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84225
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Ch. 18
Updated:
2011-05-07 15:59:13
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Nutrition
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Oral Health Nutrition & Dietary Considerations in Adolescence & Adulthood
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  1. 2 MAIN oral health issues in adolescence & adulthood are the PREVENTION & TREATMENT of:
    • 1.) Caries
    • 2.) Periodontal Disease
  2. Adolescence -
    the period of PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, & SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT between CHILDHOOD & ADULTHOOD
  3. 5 Things Adequate Intakes of Energy Foods & Nutrients are REQUIRED for:
    • 1.) Growth
    • 2.) Physical Maturity
    • 3.) Metabolism
    • 4.) Activity
    • 5.) Preventing Chronic Disease
  4. INSUFFICIENT Energy or Nutrient Intakes can LIMIT 4 Things:
    • 1.) Growth Potential
    • 2.) Delay/Arrest Puberty
    • 3.) Impair Tissue Healing
    • 4.) Compromise Immunity
  5. The RATE of 3 things DETERMINES Nutrient & Energy Requirements:
    • 1.) Physical Growth
    • 2.) Metabolism
    • 3.) Activity
  6. Emotional & Psychological states INFLUENCE 2 Things:
    • 1.) Food choices
    • 2.) Meal patterns
  7. T/F: Growth rate ACCELERATES with pubescence (puberty) UNTIL it is AS RAPID as that of early infancy.
    TRUE!
  8. Long bones, secondary sexual maturation, & fat & muscle deposition create an ________ nutrient requirement.
    INCREASED
  9. Who's nutrient requirements are GREATER: boys or girls?
    BOYS!

    • Boys: 3800 kcals
    • Girls: 2900 kcals
  10. ___% of the adult skeletal mass is formed DURING adolescence.
    45%
  11. What nutrient needs are GREATER during adolescence than at any other time of life?
    CALCIUM!

    1300mg/day
  12. What vitamin deficiency is PREVALENT in teen girls?
    Vitamin D
  13. 2 Reasons Why Iron needs are INCREASED during adolescence:
    • 1.) EXPANDED blood volume & muscle mass
    • 2.) Blood loss due to menstruation
  14. 6 Things That AFFECT Adolescent's Nutrition:
    • 1.) Peer pressure
    • 2.) Stress
    • 3.) Overweight
    • 4.) Eating disorders
    • 5.) Soft drink consumption
    • 6.) POOR food choices
  15. What has the GREATEST INFLUENCE on eating choices?
    Peer Pressure
  16. 2 Nutrients that stress can DECREASE the utilization (use) of:
    • 1.) Vitamin C
    • 2.) Calcium
  17. Teens & Soft Drink Consumption: (4)
    • Soft drink consumption is SOARING
    • Soft drinks are REPLACING milk in the teen diet
    • This has a MAJOR IMPACT on bone development
    • Soft drinks CAUSE caries
  18. Teen Food Choices are: (6)
    • 1.) HIGH-Calorie
    • 2.) HIGH-Fat
    • 3.) HIGH-Sugar
    • 4.) HIGH-Sodium
    • 5.) LOW-Fiber
    • 6.) LOW-Nutrient foods
  19. T/F: Unhealthy eating behaviors may be considered SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE or DESIREABLE by peers.
    TRUE!
  20. FREQUENT intake of food away from home, ESPECIALLY fast foods, can result in a dietary pattern of 3 Things:
    • 1.) HIGH-Fat
    • 2.) HIGH-Sugar
    • 3.) LOW-Fiber
  21. Cigarette use, alcohol use & substance abuse are associated with a LOWER intake of 2 Things:
    • 1.) Fruits
    • 2.) Vegetables
  22. Adulthood -
    state of being FULLY grown or mature
  23. 4 MAIN Reasons for GOOD nutrition DURING adulthood:
    • 1.) Health PROMOTION
    • 2.) Chronic disease PREVENTION
    • 3.) MAINTAIN oral tissue & supporting structures
    • 4.) SUPPORT a FUNCTIONAL immune system
  24. T/F: The IDEAL DIET for the oral & systemic health of adolescents provides ADEQUATE nutrients & energy to meet individual needs for growth or weight maintenance, metabolism, & activity.
    TRUE!
  25. T/F: Adolescents should LIMIT the exposure to Fermentable Carbohydrates (CHO's).
    TRUE!
  26. Diet habits are INGRAINED in a person's: (3)
    • 1.) Tradition
    • 2.) Culture
    • 3.) Religion
  27. WHEN does Maximum Linear Growth OCCUR for adolescents?
    • Females: between ages 10-13; just BEFORE menarche
    • Males: between ages 12-15
  28. Nutritional requirements are GREATEST during the years of Maximum Growth. What are the requirements for females & males during these years?
    • Females: 2,071-2,368 kcals; 34-46g Protein
    • Males: 2,279-3,152 kcals; 34-42g Protein
  29. 2 Things Adolescents may be at an INCREASED RISK for later in life DUE to INSUFFICIENT Calcium &/or Vitamin D:
    • 1.) Osteoporosis
    • 2.) Periodontal Disease
  30. HIGH ________ intake is REQUIRED to SUPPORT bone growth to ATTAIN peak bone mass.
    HIGH-Calcium intake
  31. Women with LOW milk intakes DURING childhood & adolescence have: (2)
    • 1.) LESS bone mass in adulthood
    • 2.) INCREASED RISK of fractures
  32. ADDITIONAL iron is NEEDED for the synthesis of what 2 Things at the time of the Pubertal Growth Spurt?
    • 1.) Myoglobin
    • 2.) Hemoglobin
  33. Iron deficiency occurs in __% of adolescent girls.
    9%
  34. T/F: Iron recommendations for females EXCEEDS that for males.
    TRUE!
  35. 4 MAJOR dietary sources of Iron for adolescents:
    • 1.) Ready-to-eat cereals
    • 2.) Fortified yeast breads
    • 3.) Bakery products
    • 4.) Pasta
  36. 2 Things that a person's eating habits can AFFECT:
    • 1.) Caries RISK
    • 2.) Enamel demineralization
  37. T/F: You should LIMIT the contact time BETWEEN the teeth & fermentable CHO's to MINIMIZE plaque development & activity.
    TRUE!
  38. 2 Things to do AFTER exposure to REDUCE caries risk:
    • 1.) RINSE with water
    • 2.) BRUSH with fluoridates toothpaste
  39. 3 Adolescents & Adult Diet-Related Issues:
    • 1.) Environment
    • 2.) Weight concerns
    • 3.) Eating disorders
  40. Adolescents & Environment: (3)
    • Teens typically spend LESS time with their immediate family while they STRUGGLE to establish an identity & seek autonomy
    • Peers have a GREATER INFLUENCE than parents have on food choices & dietary (diet) habits
    • Peers INFLUENCE how, when, what, & where foods are consumed
  41. Adulthood & Environment: (2)
    • Adulthood is a MORE stable state because of the MORE mature physical, emotional, & cognitive processes
    • Social, geographic, &/or financial CHANGES in the environment may INFLUENCE adults diet by affecting access to food, resources for food, or time for food preparation
  42. 7 Things that Weight Gain or Weight Loss Programs DURING Adolescence may LEAD to:
    • 1.) MARGINAL nutrient intake
    • 2.) IMPAIRED growth
    • 3.) IMPAIRED tissue maintenance
    • 4.) IMPAIRED healing
    • 5.) IMPAIRED immune function
    • 6.) INCREASED susceptibility to oral & systemic disease
    • 7.) Linear growth LIMITATIONS & pubertal DELAY
  43. T/F: Eating disorders are COMMONLY present DURING adolescence & early adulthood.
    TRUE!
  44. 4 Underlying CAUSES of Eating Disorders:
    • 1.) Sexual abuse
    • 2.) Depression
    • 3.) EARLY detachment from Mother
    • 4.) Media influences
  45. Night Eating Syndrome -
    • is CHARACTERIZED by morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, & insomnia
    • subjects are conscious of their nocturnal eating
    • it INCREASES RISK of obesity & caries
  46. Nocturnal Sleep-Related Eating Disorder -
    • CHARACTERIZED by MULTIPLE waking & eating episodes of which the individual is NOT conscious
    • it INCREASES RISK of obesity & caries
  47. 4 Red Flags for Eating Disorders:
    • 1.) Enamel demineralization
    • 2.) Tooth hypersensitivity
    • 3.) Mucosal trauma
    • 4.) Xerostomia
  48. 5 Dental Treatments for Eating Disorders:
    • 1.) Oral prophylaxis
    • 2.) Fluoride treatment
    • 3.) Home care guidance
    • 4.) Pain palliation (relief)
    • 5.) LIMITED restoration
  49. 5 Nutritional Treatments for Eating Disorders:
    • 1.) EVALUATING average daily intake
    • 2.) EXAMINING weight for height (BMI)
    • 3.) DETERMINING trigger & avoided foods
    • 4.) ESTABLISHING a working eating plan
    • 5.) ENCOURAGING development of a healthy body image
  50. 4 Beverage-Related Issues in Children, Adolescents, & Adults:
    • 1.) INCREASED juice intakes >>>> caries RISK
    • 2.) INCREASED carbonated beverage (sodas) intakes >>>> tooth decay (caries) & EXCESS energy intake
    • 3.) DECREASED milk intakes >>>> Osteoporosis
    • 4.) DECREASED water intakes
  51. Diet & Athletics:
    • Participation in athletic or fitness programs INCREASES energy requirements
    • Supplemental vitamins & minerals do NOT enhance performance
    • ADDITIONAL protein does NOT build muscle
  52. Females who engage in endurance sports are at RISK for iron deficiency because of 5 things:
    • 1.) INCREASED iron losses from sweating
    • 2.) Red Blood Cell (RBC) DESTRUCTION
    • 3.) GI LOSSES
    • 4.) POOR absorption
    • 5.) INADEQUATE iron intake
  53. 4 things about Alcohol:
    • 1.) Alcohol itself is NOT cariogenic or acidic
    • 2.) MANY alcoholic beverages CONTAIN fermentable carbohydrates (CHO's) & FREQUENT consumption INCREASES caries risk
    • 3.) Alcohol provides 7 kcals/gram when METABOLIZED & may CONTRIBUTE to EXCESS energy intake
    • 4.) LOW food intake & ALTERED nutrient metabolism place individuals with FREQUENT alcohol intake at RISK for malnutrition
  54. 2 Things about Recreational Drugs:
    • USE of addictive drugs (Marijuana, Cocaine, Nicotine) ALTERS food choices & dietary habits DURING both addiction & withdrawal
    • Rampant caries is a HALLMARK of Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse---it is attributed to Xerostomia, FREQUENT sugared beverage consumption, & POOR oral hygiene
  55. Eating disorders occur MAINLY in:
    Young Adults
  56. Root caries BEGIN to APPEAR in:
    Middle Age
  57. T/F: Nutritional risk factors of adolescents tend to be problems of excess RATHER THAN deficiency.
    TRUE
  58. 6 Food Habits that may INCREASE Risk of Caries &/or Erosion:
    • 1.) Vitamin C supplements
    • 2.) Vitamin C lozenges
    • 3.) Hard candy
    • 4.) Breath mints
    • 5.) Sour candies
    • 6.) Lemon wedges/slices
  59. 1.) Vitamin C Supplements:
    • ascorbic acid is acidic
    • when supplements are chewed, the risk of erosion INCREASES, particularly with MULTIPLE exposures throughout the day
  60. 2.) Vitamin C Lozenges:
    • lozenges typically contain sugar, corn syrup, ascorbic acid, & citric acid
    • FREQUENT sucking on lozenges INCREASES caries risk & erosion
  61. 3.) Hard Candy:
    sucking on hard candy throughout the day, often as self-prescribed treatment for Xerostomia, INCREASES caries risk
  62. 4.) Breath Mints:
    • Breath Mints are made with sugar & meant to be held in the mouth for prolonged periods
    • They are often the culprits in adult root caries
  63. 5.) Sour Candies:
    • are acidic candies
    • they contain sugar, corn syrup, citric acid, & ascorbic acid
    • marketing of these candies challenges consumers to see how long they can hold the candy in their mouth
    • package labels contain the warning "eating multiple pieces within a SHORT time period may cause a temporary irritation to sensitive tongues & mouths"
    • consumption of sour candies can INCREASE caries risk & erosion & oral mucosa lesions
  64. 6.) Lemon Wedges: (lemon slices)
    Holding or chewing acidic fruits in a specific location in the mouth INCREASES risk of demineralization

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