sementer 3

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Rodonnell
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84250
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sementer 3
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2011-05-07 19:20:00
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Medic class
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Chapter 2 volume 3
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  1. Cardiovascular disease
    diease affecting the heart, peripheral blood vessels, or both
  2. coranary heart disease
    A typr of CVD,the signal largest killer of americans
  3. how mant americans suffer fromCardiovascular disease
    more than 60 million
  4. what risk fators increase the possibilty of having cardiovascular diease
    Smoking,older age,Family history, hypertension,hypercholesteroemia, carbohydrate intoerance, cocaine use, male gender, lack of exercise
  5. What are the risk factors that increase Coranary heart disease
    Diet, Obesity, oral contraceptive, Type a personality, psychosocial tensions
  6. Cardiovascular system Has teo m,ajor parts
    Heart and perpheral blood vessels
  7. anastomosis
    communication between two or more vessels
  8. Poiseuille's law
    a law of physiology stating that blood flows through a vessel is directly proportional to the radius of the vessel to the fourth power
  9. cardiac cycle
    the period of time from the end of one cardiac contractionto the end of the next
  10. diastole
    the period of time the myocardium is relaxed and cardiac filling and coranary perfusion occurs
  11. systole
    the period of the cardiac cycle when the myocardium is contracting
  12. ejection fraction
    ratio of blood pumped from the ventricle to the amount remaining at the end of distole
  13. stroke volume
    the amount of blood ejected by the heart in one cardiac contraction
  14. preload
    the pressure within the ventricles at the end of diastole: commonly called the end -diastolic volume
  15. Starling's law of the heart
    law of physiology stating that the more the myocardium is stretched ,up to a certain amount the more forceful the subsequent contraction will be
  16. afterload
    the resistance against which the heart must pump
  17. Factors that affect stroke volume
    Preload, cardiac contractivity, afterload
  18. cardiac output
    the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute
  19. cardiac output
    stroke volume (70ml) x Heart rate (bpm) = cardiac output
  20. blood pressure is
    blood pressure= cardiac output x systemic vascular resistance

    Blood pressure+ (stroke volume x heart rate) x systemic vascular resistance
  21. Sympathetic alpha receptors
    located in the perpheral blood vessels and are responsible for vasconstriction
  22. Synpathetic Beta1
    primarily in the heart which increase heart rate and contractiliy
  23. symphetic beta 2
    primarily in the lungs and perpheral blood vessels causes bronchodiliation, and perpheral vasodilation
  24. chronotrophy
    heart rate
  25. inotrophy
    cardiac contractile force
  26. dromotrophy
    speed of impluse transmission
  27. sodium
    major role in depolarization
  28. calcium
    takes part in myocardium depolarization and mycardium contraction
  29. Calcium Hypercalcemia, Hypocalcemia
    • hyper= increased contractility
    • hypo= decreased myocardium contractility
  30. potassium
    repolarization
  31. potassium hyperkalemia, hypokalemia
    • hyper = decreases automaticity and conduction
    • hypo = increase irritability
  32. intercalated discs
    specialized bands of tissue inserted between myocardial cells that increase the rate in which the action potenial is spread from cell to cell
  33. syncytium
    group of cardiac muscle cells that physiologically function as a unit
  34. cardiac depolarization
    a reversal of charges at a cell membrane so that the inside of the cell becomes postive in relation to the outside, the oppisite of the cells resting state in which the inside of the cell is negative in relation to the outside
  35. resting potential
    the normal electrical state of cardiac cells
  36. action potential
    the stimulation of myocardium cells as evidence by a change in the membrane electrical charges, that subsequently spreads across the myocardium
  37. repolarization
    return of a muscle cell to its preexcitation resting state
  38. excitability
    ability of the cells to respond to an electrical stimulus
  39. conductivity
    ability of the cell to propagate the electrical impulse from one cell to another
  40. automaticity
    pacemaker cells capability of self- depolarization
  41. contractility
    ability of muscle cells to contract or shorten
  42. SA node intrinsic rate
    60-100
  43. AV node intrinsic rate
    40-60
  44. purkinjie fibers intrinsic rate
    15-40
  45. Name the two types of cardiac cells and tell what type of activity each is responsible for
    • electrical: conduction
    • mechanical: contraction
  46. How do these two types of cells work together to produce cardiac activity
    electrical cells stimulate muscle cells to contract
  47. what physical signs are used to reflect the mechanical function of the heart
    pluse, B/P, other perfusion parameters
  48. How do you assess electrical activity in the heart
    analyze EKG
  49. Arrhythmias are manifestations of which type of cardiac activity
    electrical
  50. what happens when postive and negative electrical charges exchange places across the cell membrane of the cardiac cell
    it initiates the flow of electrical current
  51. Explain polarized state
    when electrical charges are balanced and in a statee of readiness for discharge
  52. explain depolarization
    the discharge of electrical energy that accompanies the transfer of electrical charges across the cell membrane
  53. Is depolarization the same as contraction
    NO; depolarization is an electrical phenomenon; contraction is mechanical and is expected to follow depolarization
  54. What is repolarization
    The return of the electrical charges to their original state of readiness
  55. List the area of the conduction system in the order in which the impulses travel through the heart
    1. SAnode, 2 intraatrial and internodal pathways; 3 AV node, 4 Bundle of his, 5 Bundle Branches, 6 Purkinje Fibers
  56. Which site is normally the pacemaker of the heart and why?
    the SA Node; it has the fastest inherent rate
  57. Give the inherent rates for each of the following sites
    SA NODE
    AV Junction
    Ventricles
    • 60-100
    • 40-60
    • 20-40
  58. What process is responsible for a site speeding up and overriding a higher site, thus taking over as pacemaker
    irritability
  59. What mechanism is in play if a lower site takes over responsibility for the pace-making function following failure of higher site
    escape
  60. Which nervous system has two branches that control the activities of the heart
    autonomic
  61. name the two branches of the nervous system identified in the proceding question
    • sympathetic
    • parasympathetic
  62. List three things that will happen to the heart if the sympathetic branch is stimulated
    • increased heart rate
    • increased AV conduction
    • increased irritability
  63. list three things that will happen to the heart if the parasympathetic branch is stimulated
    • decreased heart rate
    • decreased AV conduction
    • decreased irritability
  64. what part of the heart does the sympathetic branch innervate
    atrias and ventricals
  65. what part of the heart does the parasympathetic branch innervate
    only the atria
  66. What happens if one branch is blocked
    the influence of the opposing branch will control the heart

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