Biology

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Author:
tay
ID:
84330
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Biology
Updated:
2013-07-28 18:25:19
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final
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final 2
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  1. What is the morphological species
    concept? Biological species concept? Phylogenetic species concept?
    • morphological- basis of visible anatomic characteristics.
    • biological- reproductive isolation
    • phylogenetic- phyogenies of populations- the tiniest branches of the tree of life grouped together.
  2. The biological and phylogenetic
    species concepts derive from what?
    from evolutionary theory.
  3. Define speciation. Is it assocated with microevolution or
    macroevolution?
    speciation- process of new species formation.

    microevolution.
  4. True or false: Microevolutionary processes that
    lead to population divergence produce new species.
    True
  5. What is sexual selection? How does it affect male and female birds? Be able to recognize examples of
    sexual selection in different species.
    choice of mates based on their phenotypes and genotypes.

    picky about who the want. does dances.
  6. Define subspecies, ring species,
    cline. Know examples for each.
    subspecies- races- local variants of species, interbreed but have selective pressures. EX rat snake

    cline- genetic variation across geographical gradient. EX house sparrow

    ring species- have genetic variation around uninhabital to rain, distant populations exchange genes through intermediaries. EX salamanders.
  7. True or False: If a species can be divided into 4 subspecies, the members of the different subspecies cannot mate with each other and produce
    fertile offspring.
    False.
  8. True or false: When a species is distributed over a large area with grades in temperature, we see a cline in the species. (know the North American sparrow example discussed in class.)
  9. What is a reproductive isolating
    mechanism?
    a biological characteristic that prevents gene pools from two different species from mating.
  10. What is the difference between a
    prezygotic isolating mechanism and a postzygotic isolating mechanism?
    pre- prevent the production of hybrid individuals and occur before zygote formation.

    pro- reduce the success of hybrid individuals and occur after zygote formation.
  11. List the 5 prezygotic isolating mechanisms, the mode of action, and give examples of each.
  12. List the 3 postzygotic isolating
    mechanisms, the mode of action, and give
    examples of each.
    • -hybrid inviability (sick)
    • -hybrid sterility EX mules
    • -hybrid break down EX tigers.( offspring of a hybrid are sickly or inviable
  13. Understand temporal isolation among
    cicadas as discussed in class.
    isolation from mating timing.
  14. What is a hybrid? How are hybrids named? What is a chimera?
    • Hybrid-
    • male first part of name, female last part.
    • a single animal organism with genetically distinct cells from two different zygotes
  15. Define the three types of speciation:
    allopatric, parapatric and sympatric.
    • allopatric- between geographically separated populations (most common)
    • parapatric- adjacent populations
    • sympatric- within one continuosly distributed population
  16. Be sure you understand the examples
    discussed in class for both allopatric and parapatric speciation.

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