Biology Final

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Biology Final
2011-05-09 00:05:32

Biology Final
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  1. Which of the following questions is outside the realm of science?
    a. what is the nature of the supernatural?
  2. Macromolecules include:
    i.carbohydrates iii.proteins
    ii.lipids iv. nucleic acid
    d. i , ii, iii (carbs, lipids, proteins)
  3. Science is driven by_____ and technology is driven by_____.
    d. curiosity; wants
  4. Properties of organic compounds depend on the _____ and _____ of the carbon skeleton and groups attached.
    c. Shape and size
  5. Which describes the relationship between a protein and enzyme?
    a. Enzymes are proteins
  6. _____ is/are the basic unit of all living organisms.
    d. Cells
  7. Carbohydrates on proteins of the cell membrane are used as:
    b. Cell identification markers
  8. How are the matrix of the mitochandria and the stroma of the chloroplast similar?
    d. They contain DNA and ribosomes
  9. During a chemical reaction, enzymes are:
    b. Unchanged
  10. This sign would best represent which organelle:
    d. Lyosome
  11. Which is not a function of the cell membrane?
    d. Produce food
  12. Which of the following is not a function of a protein?
    e. Produce ribosomes
  13. Select the statement that correctly states the similarity between carbohydrates and lipids.
    c. They are made through the process of dehydration
  14. Proteins that send or recieve specific messages are known as:
    d. Receptors
  15. Prokaryotes can use _____ to propel themselves forward.
    c. Flagella
  16. Twenty minutes after a leaf is placed in a solution, the leave begins to wilt. The leaf was in a ______ solution.
    b. Hypertonic
  17. Use diagram 1 on last page to answer these questions:

    1. At which temperature does enzyme B perform best?
    2. At 80*C, ezyme A:
    • d. 80 *C
    • d. no longer functions
  18. The starting material of every chemical reaction is known as:
    a. reactants
  19. Is this statement true or false? "Animal cells have mitochondria; plant cells have chloroplast."
    c. True, but plant cells also have mitochandria
  20. A polypeptide is a:
    a. long chain of amino acids
  21. An organelle that can have ribosomes attached to it is the ______.
    e. rough endoplasmic recticulum
  22. Use this diagram to answer these questions:

    1. The picture is depicting:
    2. This picture cannot be feedback inhibition because the inhibitor is:
    • c. noncompetitive behavior
    • b. not the same shape as the product
  23. Cells remove large food molecules by:
    d. exocytosis
  24. Why do animal cells lyse in certain solutions, but not plant cells?
    c. Animal cells do not have a cell wall
  25. The_____ is responsible for trafficking substances into and out of cell.
    c.cell membrane
  26. Assume there is a boulder on a cliff and you push on the boulder to get it started down the hill. However, before you push, you dig a small hole out from under the boulder to help get it rolling once you push. In this scenario, what is acting as the enzyme?
    d. the hole that was dug out from under the boulder
  27. A hypothesis:
    c. is an educated explanation
  28. Transport across the cell membrane:
    b. depends on concentration gradient.
  29. In order, the steps of the scientific approach are:
    b. observation, hypothesis, test, conclusion
  30. Prokaryotes and plant cells have:
    a. Ribosomes and cell walls
  31. Penicillin is an example of:
    b. a chemical that inhibits the function of a vital enzyme in bacteria
  32. Movement across the membrane is regulated by:
    d. Transport proteins
  33. Every cell has:
    i.nucleus iii. Cell wall
    ii.cell membrane iv. cytoplasm
    d. ii, iv. (cell membrane, cytoplasm)
  34. A shortage of phospherus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture....
    a. DNA
  35. A K+ ion would passively transport across the membrane:
    c. by facilitated diffusion
  36. Biology is the study of:
    c. life
  37. The site on an enzyme that the substrate binds to is known as:
    a. active site
  38. Use this diagram to answer these questions:

    1. Letter A is______.
    2. Select the letter that demonstrates movement against the concentration gradient.
    3. Select the statement that is true.
    • 1. a. diffusion
    • 2. c. C
    • 3. c. Letter C will never reach equilibrium
  39. which statement is correct about vacuoles:
    e. all of the above are correct
  40. Which of the following is an enzyme?
    a. pyruvate

    b. Acetyl CoA

    c. sucrase

    d. all of the above

    e. cannot be determined
    e. cannot be determined
  41. In which cell would you find the most mitochandria?
    c. Cells in tissue layer lining the digestive tract
  42. A stick of butter is solid at room temperature because:
    a. its made of carbohydtrates
    b. its made of unsaturated fats
    c. its made of proteins
    d. it had no enzymes
    e. none of the above
    e. none of the above
  43. Aquaporins are unique in that they:
    b. are proteins that move water
  44. Carbohydrates are sugars that are:
    e. none of the above
  45. Facilitated diffusion across a membrane requires _______ and moves a solute _______ iis concentration gradient.
    e. transport proteins; against
  46. DNA and RNA:
    d. are two strands and one strand, respectively.
  47. Use this diagram to answer these questions:

    1. The structure is ___
    2. If this structure was placed in a glass of water, it would:
    • 1. d. all of the above
    • 2 d. not mix with the water because its hydrophobic.
  48. What is the similarity between all organic compounds:
    b. they have a carbon based skeleton or backbone
  49. An isotonic solution is a solution:
    e. at equilibrium
  50. Which features do prokaryotic cells share with chloroplast and mitochandria?
    c. DNA and phospholipids bilayer
  51. Alpha helix and pleated sheets are the _____structure of ______.
    d. secondary; proteins
  52. ______ are little organs or structures that are enclosed by a membrane.
    b. Organelles
  53. A difference between osmosis and diffusion is:
    b. the substance being moved
  54. ______ is the ability of solution to make cell lose or gain water:
    d. Tonicity
  55. Unsaturated fats:
    c. are associated with fewer health risks than are saturated fats
  56. Use this statement to answer these questions:

    "The inventions of microscopes led to the dicovery of cells. From the first observation of cells, it was determined that they were spherical in shape and no larger than 1mm."

    1. Which exemplifies technology?
    2. The observations of cells were based on:
    • 1. The invention of microscopes
    • 2. Discovery science
  57. Organelle responsible for creating materials to rebuilding the cell membrane:
    c. Rough endplasmic reticulum
  58. Which best describes the structure of a cell membrane?
    b. Proteins embedded in a bilayer of phospholipids
  59. A turgid cell is a _____ cell that is ____:
    c. Plant; firm
  60. Enzymes:
    e. all of the above
  61. "Cellular drinking:"
    c. pinocytosis
  62. Nucleic acids:
    b. include phosphate and sugar groups
  63. Which clues would tell you whether a cell is prokaryotic and eukaryotic?
    b. whether or not the cell is partitioned by internal membranes
  64. An example of osmosis is:
    c. noodles cooking in water
  65. Which organelle holds the instructions to the assemblage of an organism?
    d. Nucleus
  66. Select the false statement about exocytosis and endocytosis:
    d. They move materials out of cell
  67. The cell membrane does not include:
    d. nucleic acids
  68. Use this diagram to answer these questions:

    1. The picture was taken by a: (what microscope)
    2. These organisms are:
    • 1. b. Transmission electron microscope
    • 2. a. Prokaryotic with a cell wall
  69. Which of the following correctly ranks the structures in order of size from largest to smallest?
    c. chromosome, gene, codon, nucleotide
  70. The site where RNA polymerase attaches to DNA molecule to start the formation of an RNA molecule is called the ____ region.
    a. Promoter
  71. Human genes located on chromosome #23 that do not code for sex are known as:
    c. Homologous genes
  72. Which of the following phases of mitosis is essentially the opposite of prophase in terms of nuclear changes?
    c. Telophase
  73. Where did corn originate?
    b. Mexico
  74. If the offspring of a black horse bred to a white horse is a grey horse, which of the following statements must be true:
    a. The offspring is heterozygous
  75. Fatal genes can remain in a population if:
    a. they are recessive
  76. A tumor is:
    e. none of the above
  77. Binary fission of bacteria and the cell cycle of humans are both forms of asexual reproduction. Knowing that, which statement is a similarity between both?
    d. all of the above are a similarity
  78. The physical characteristics of an organism is the organisms ____.
    e. phenotype
  79. Select the statement that best describes the relationship between gene expression and gene regulation.
    a. Gene expression is governed by gene regulation
  80. Use this diagram to answer the next two questions:
    1. which cell is undergoing anaphase?
    2. Letter E is demonstrating a cell undergoing telophase. Select the statement that is true.
    • 1. d. D
    • 2. a. The cells are diploid
  81. When RNA is being made, the RNA base _____ always pairs with the base ______ in DNA.
    a. U....T
  82. The transmission of traits from parents to offspring is known as:
    a. Heredity
  83. Uracil:
    b. Is a single ring structure
  84. DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase are similar as they:
    d. are enzymes
  85. What encouraged the sweetner industry?
    b. Overproduction of corn
  86. Assuming no incomplete dominance, if a homozygous dominant hard shel turtle and a homozygous recessive soft shell turtle are crossed:
    a. the recessive trait (soft shell) seems to disappear
  87. In nature, a mule is produced by crossing a horse with a donkey. Why is the mule not considered a "genetically modified organism?"
    c. Because a mule is produced naturally, not by artificial means
  88. Which of the following is not a phase of mitosis?
    d. cytokinesis
  89. Why are males more prone to recessive sex-linked disorders?
    c. They only need one copy of the recessive allele for the disorder to be expressed
  90. Homologuous chromosomes are important in meiosis because:
    a. crossing over can occur which increases genetic diversity
  91. Cystic fibrosis is a recessive disorder, therefore, it only occurs in individuals that:
    b. carry two alleles for cystic fibrosis
  92. In some of his experiments, Mendel studied the inheritance patterns of two characters at once. He did this to find out:
    a. whether genes for the two characters are inherited together or seperately.
  93. It would be most difficult to spot which of the following by looking at a karyotype?
    e. a gene mutation
  94. Human blood type is controlled by A, B, and O. The blood type O is universal. How many alleles control blood type?
    c. three
  95. In gene expression, ____ types of RNA's are required to make a single protein.
    c. three
  96. Human ____ are diploid, and human _____ are haploid.
    b. somatic cells....gamete cells
  97. Trisomy:
    i. is when there are two copies of a chromosome
    ii. can occur in autosomes
    iii. can occur in sex chromosomes
    iv. example is down syndrome
    c. ii, iii, iv
  98. A messanger RNA molecule for making a protein is made in the nucleus and sent out to a ribosome. The ribosome reads the mRNA message and makes a protein containing 180 amino acids. The mRNA consisted of at least how many codons?
    d. 360
  99. The RNA that carries the message is____.
    a. mRNA
  100. The purine nucleotides are ____.
    d. Adenine and guanine
  101. Which statement is correct about mutations:
    c. The effect of mutations in somatic cells is only seen in the cells that are produced form that cell.
  102. An individuals phenotype:
    d. all of the above
  103. Why are individuals with an extra chromosome 21, Down syndrome, more numerous than individuals with an extra chromosome 3?
    c. Extra copies of the other chromosomes are probably fatal
  104. A particular _____ carry the information for making a particular polypeptide, but ____ can be used to make any polypeptide.
    b. gene and mRNA.... a ribosome and a tRNA
  105. Recombinant DNA is:
    e. DNA that comes from two different sources
  106. Select the statement that is true as presented by the documentary:
    b. corn fed cattle have higher amounts of unhealthy saturated fats, but are cheaper to produce than grass fed cattle
  107. _____ is when RNA polymerase moves along the DNA strand making a long string of mRNA.
    b. Elongation
  108. Use this diagram to answer these questions:
    1. The diagram is illustrating_____
    2. What do B, E, and F have in common?
    3. Letter A is representing a_____.
    • 1. c. Translation
    • 2. d. All of the above
    • 3. a. Amino Acid
  109. A codon is a sequence of three ____ that codes for a single _____.
    a. nucletides; amino acid
  110. Benefits to gene cloning include production of:
    d. all of the above
  111. A persons physical appearance is called:
    b. phenotype
  112. Which of the following is not a function of mitosis in humans?
    b. production of gametes
  113. Cancers are named according to:
    c. the area in which they originated
  114. In the documentary, what was the first weed they found in their corn crop?
    b. Marijuana (weed)
  115. All of the following are a type of gene mutation except:
    d. Detraction
  116. A geneticist found that a particular mutation had no effect on the polypeptide coded by a gene. This mutation is probably involved:
    e. substitution of one nucleotide
  117. Use this diagram to answer these questions:
    1. this image helps researchers detect abnormalities in chromosomes and is known as a ______.
    2. This individual has:
    • 1. b. Karyotype
    • 2. b. Klinefelter syndrome
  118. DNA replication:
    a. occurs to produce more copies of DNA
  119. Which of the following is a benefit of genetic engineering?
    e. All of the above
  120. Select the answer (A, B, C, or D) that best represents the following statement.
    A. Mitosis B. Meiosis
    C. Mitosis and Meiosis D. Neither

    1. Occurs with prokaryotic cells
    2. Part of Cell Cycle
    3. Begins with diploid cell
    4. Involves homologuous chromosomes
    • 1. D Neither
    • 2. A Mitosis
    • 3. C. Mitosis and Meiosis
    • 4. B. Meiosis
  121. Your bone cells, muscle cells, and skin cells look different because:
    c. different genes are active in each kind of cell
  122. The process that occurs in the nucleus:
    i. DNA replication
    ii. Transcription
    iii. Translation
    b. i, ii
  123. The number of autosomes in a single set of human liver cell is _____
    b. 22
  124. Changes in genetic material are_____.
    c. mutations
  125. The allele for human cholesterol levels are dominant. A homozygous dominant individual can live well pass their 50's but a homozygous recessive individual usually passes at birth. if a person dies at 30 due to high cholesterol, what do you know about that individuals cholesterol genotype?
    c. They are heterozygous
  126. The difference between DNA and RNA is:
    c. DNA is double-stranded
  127. What does crossing over and mutations have in common?
    a. Increase genetic diversity
  128. Using this DNA strand, answer the next 3 questions:

    1. What would be the best sequence of the mRNA transcribed form this gene?
    2. How many amino acids would be produced by this sequence?
    3. Upon completion of gene expression, what would be the product of this DNA sequence?
    • 2. d. 7
    • 3. d. protein
  129. Which of the following would be considered a transgenic organism?
    d. a rat with rabbit hemoglobin genes
  130. A sickle cell male has two children with one woman. One child has sickle cell, but the other does not. Select the statement that is true.
    b. The mother is the carrier
  131. Use this diagram to answer the next 3 questions:
    1. The photo is showing a _____ cell.
    2. The cell is part of a
    3. The number of total chromosomes in one human single cancer cell is:
    • 1. c. Leukemia
    • 2. b. Malignant tumor because it's mestasizing
    • 3. d. 46, it has the sex chromosome and contains both set of genes
  132. Earthworms, which are substrate feeders:
    e. eat their way through the soil, feeding on partially decayed organic matter
  133. Which is correct about inflammatory response in the infected area:
    d. all of the above
  134. Which of the following is mismatched with its function:
    d. iron-component of thryroid hormones
  135. Although my dog Maude has one eye, she has a heart, therefore Maude has a:
    b. closed circulatory system with blood vessels
  136. Match the cell type to the correct statement for these questions:
    1. White blood cells that engulf viruses:
    2. Attacks infected body cells
    3. Secretes antibodies
    • 1. D. macrophage
    • 2. B. Cytotoxic T Cell
    • 3. E. B Cell
  137. Which of the following shows a correct gamete to gonad association:
    c. sperm: testes
  138. _____ exchange oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients with neighboring tissue through:
    c. Capillaries
  139. Use this diagram to answer these questions:
    1. Absorption begins in:
    2. Letter E, which is tucked behind the liver, is the:
    3. Secretes amylase to begin chemical digestion of food:
    4. The colon is labeled as:
    • 1. C
    • 2. b. gallbladder
    • 3. A
    • 4. D
  140. Which organ is not part of the alimentary canal:
    a. liver
  141. A similarity between red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets is:
    e. they originate in the bone marrow
  142. By increasing adipose (fat) tissue:
    a. leptin increases and suppresses appetite
  143. Heart attacks are caused by:
    b. insufficient blood supply in heart muscles
  144. Use this diagram to answer these questions:
    1. Water is forced across the walls of the capillaries in the Bowmans capsule is known as:
    2. The following are never secreted or filtrated out of the blood:
    • 1. b. filtration
    • 2. b. red blood cells and proteins
  145. Which method of contraception is the most effective:
    e. vasectomy
  146. Boxers worn by males help:
    b. regulate temperature of the scrotum
  147. Comparing ghoorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and herpes, select the correct statement:
    e. they can be transmitted from mother to baby
  148. Anemia is:
    e. lack of red blood cells carrying oxygen which can result from excessive blood loss
  149. An ectopic pregnancy is when the egg:
    b. implants itself in the fallopian tubes
  150. Consuming large amounts of water leads to:
    b. diluted urine with excess water
  151. Homeostasis of water is governed by:
    b. kidneys
  152. Which of the following is not a type of blood vessel?
    c. lymph vessels
  153. Antibodies are:
    c. proteins in plasma that counter antigens
  154. Which form of contraception decreases an individuals chance of pregnancy and decreases chances of contradicting a STD?
    d. Condom
  155. Use this diagram to answer these questions:
    1. number 1 identifies the:
    2. Number 3 is showing:
    3. Number 10 the blood vessel bringing the blood back to the heart. Select the statement that is true:
    • 1. a. right ventricle
    • 2. d. capillaries depositing carbon dioxide and gathering oxygen
    • 3. It is a vein carrying oxygen poor blood
  156. _______ is the insertion of a ballooon to compact plaque buildup in blood vessels.
    a. Angioplasty
  157. EPO is a:
    b. produced by the kidney to increase red blood cell production
  158. Select the word that is matched with the appropriate main function:
    d. large intestines--water reclamation
  159. Constipation is when:
    c. feces moves slowly through the large intestines allowing excessive water absorption
  160. When people experience hypothermia, their lips become purple. Which best explains for the discoloration:
    d. blood vessels are constricting to divert warm blood to deeper vessels
  161. AIDS represents:
    a. Auto Immunodefiency Syndrome
  162. Use the Male reproductive diagram on the last page to answer these questions:
    1. Letter ___ represents the prostate gland
    2. Stores sperm while it develops:
    3. Identify letter F and its function:
    • 1. D
    • 2. a. B
    • 3. d. Vas Deferens--transports sperm
  163. The menstrual cycle is:
    a. the shedding of the lining of the cervix
  164. Which is not an external barrier?
    d. macrophages
  165. The presence of vitamin D is important in the:
    c. small intestines because it increases the absorption of other nutrients
  166. _______, cancer of the white blood cells leads to _______.
    a. Leukemia; overcrowding of red blood cells
  167. Anaphylactic shock caused by allergens:
    d. causes blood vessels to dilate
  168. Foreign molecules that elicit an immune response are called:
    a. antigens
  169. List the stages in which food is processed by the digestive system in the correct order:
    a. ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
  170. Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected cells by:
    d. release a lysis promoting protein
  171. Use the female reproductive anatomy diagram to answer these questions:
    1. Eggs are released from a mature____.
    2. The location in which fertilization must take place.
    3. The cervix is labeled as:
    4. Select the one that is NOT part of the lymphatic system:
    • 1. e. follicle
    • 2. B
    • 3. c. D
    • 4. e. Kidneys
  172. Select the type decribed:
    1. Mobile out of capillary
    2. Has nucleus
    3. Transport hemoglobin
    • 1. b, white blood cells
    • 2. e. WBC and Platelets
    • 3. a. Red Blood Cells
  173. _____ are the blood vessel with the greatest blood pressure.
    a. arteries
  174. Liver cirrhosis is a disease of the liver, which can lead to edema, a condition in which fluid accumulates in the tissues. Select the statement that best explains how this condition arises:
    b. proteins are no longer produced by the liver cause water to move from capillaries to tissue
  175. Which of the following best describes the difference in the way B cells and cytotoxic T cells handle invaders?
    b. B cells release antibodies, T cells attack infected cells
  176. Lupus is an example of ____ disease, when an individuals immune system attacks itself.
    d. autoimmune
  177. Helper T Cells:
    b. Stimulate B cell production
  178. Platelets assist in blood clotting and are:
    a. fragments of bone marrow
  179. Select the best explanation of how HIV kills a person.
    c. HIV attacks T cells decreasing weakening the immune system allowing minor infections to become fatal
  180. LDL's are _____ that travels through the body in the blood and ___.
    c. cholesterol; increases the probability of blocked vessels
  181. An individual is trying to increase weight. Would you recommend the milk with Vitamin D or Orange juice with Vitamin C?
    a. Milk because fat soluble nutrients get stored
  182. A physician diagnosed her patient with colon cancer. Where does this individual have cancer?
    e. large intestines
  183. A harmless variant of a virus or bacteria that stimulates the immune system is:
    c. vaccine