anat & physio II Final

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Anonymous
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anat & physio II Final
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2011-05-07 17:12:50
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anat physio II Final
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anat & physio II
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  1. The average adult contains _________ liters of fluid
    40
  2. Healthy males are ______% water
    60
  3. Healthy females are ______% water
    • 50
    • because females have higher body fat % and smaller amount of skeletal muscle
  4. Old age _______% of body water weight
    45
  5. Water is a ___________ solvent
    universal
  6. Solutes are classified into
    Electrolytes and Non electrolytes
  7. Electrolytes
    • inorganic salts, all acids, bases and some proteins
    • Have greater osmotic power than non electrolytes
  8. Non electrolytes
    glucose, lipids, creatine & urea
  9. Expressed in miliequivalents per liter mEq/L or a measure of the number of electrical charges in 1L of solution
    Electrolyte Concentration
  10. single charged ions
    1mEq= 1mOm
  11. bivalent ions
    1mEq= 1/2 mOm
  12. Water occupies 2 main fluid compartments
    • Intracellular fluid ICF- contained in cells 2/3 by volume
    • Extracellular fluid ECF - plasma fluid portion of blood & interstitial fluid in spaces between cells & ECF
  13. ECF
    • lymph
    • cerebral spinal fluid
    • eye humors
    • synovial fluid
    • serous fluid
    • gastrointestinal secretions
  14. ICF= _____% of total body fluids
    63
  15. ECF= _____% of total body fluids
    37%
  16. mEq/L =
    • concentration of ion mq/L
    • _______________________
    • atomic weight of ion
  17. ______% of the mass of solutes in plasma
    90%
  18. ______% of the mass of solutes in interstitial fluid
    60%
  19. ______% of the mass of solutes in intracellular compartment
    97%
  20. Potasium and protein found in high concentrations in ?
    Cells
  21. Sodium found in _______ concentrations in cells
    low
  22. compartmental exchange is regulated by
    osmotic and hydrostatic pressure
  23. net leakage of fluid from blood is picked up by
    lymphatic vessels and returned to blood stream
  24. ion fluxes are restricted by
    more selectively by active transport
  25. Nutrients, respiratory gases and wastes
    more unidirectionally
  26. Plasma is the only fluid that
    circulates throughout the body links external and internal environments
  27. Osmolalities of the body fluid are
    • equal
    • measured at 300 mOm
  28. to remain properly hydrated water intake must =
    water output
  29. Water intake sources
    • Ingested fluid 60%
    • solid food 30%
    • Metabolic water or water oxidation 10%
  30. water output
    • urine 60%
    • feces 4-6%
    • Insensible losses 28%
    • sweat 6-8%
  31. increases in plasma osmolality trigger thirst and release of
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  32. should take in _______ and release ______of fluids
    2.5L or 2500ml
  33. hypothalamic thirst center stimulated by
    • decline in plasma volume 10-15%
    • increase in plasma osmolality 1-2% - increase solute load
    • total body water just needs to decrease by 1%
  34. hypothalamic thirst center
    sensed by baroreceptor input, angiotensin II, or other stimuli
  35. Thirst quenched
    as soon as we begin to drink water
  36. Feedback signals that inhibit the thirst centers
    • Moistening the mucosa of the mouth and throat
    • activation of stomach & intestinal stretch receptors
  37. Obligatory water losses
    • insensitive losses from lungs & skin
    • water accomplishes undigested food residues in feces
  38. Obligatory water loss reflects that
    kidneys excrete 900-1200 mOm of solutes to maintain blood homeostasis
  39. Urine solutes must be
    flushed out of the body in water
  40. water reabsorbtion in collecting ducts is proportional to release of
    ADH
  41. Low ADH levels =
    • produce dilute urine
    • reduces volume of body fluids
  42. High ADH levels =
    produce concentrated urine
  43. Hypothalamic osmoreceptors
    trigger or inhibit ADH release
  44. Factors that trigger or inhibit ADH release
    • prolonged fever
    • excessive sweating
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • severe blood loss
    • traumatic burns
  45. dehydration
    • body in negative fluid balance
    • hemorrhage, severe burns, prolonged vomiting, diarrhea water deprivation & diuretic abuse
  46. dehydration leads to
    • weight loss, fever, mental confusion
    • hypovolemic shock loss of electrolytes

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