Party manifestos , is basically a set of pre-election promises made at general election by parties listing the changes they would carry out if elected. as a result Act of Parliament may stem from the manifesto.
pre-election manifestos are not legally enforceable, nevertheless the Government will need to address the failed promises that were made as they would lose the trust of the public. furthermore, the opposition party will make certain that they are held accountable.
National emergency, crisis or new development
Because of National emergency ,a crisis or new development, new laws can be passed. these law are usually made very quickly, therefore, not much debate been done and sometimes may have flaws.
-The Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001, allows the indefinite detention of foreign nationals without trial who are suspected by M15 of having link with Al- Qa'eda as a result undermine the security of the country.
the Human Reproductive Cloning Act 2001 makes it a criminal offence to implant a cloned embryo into a woman.
the Animal Health Act 2002, " gives Government vets the power to enter a farm and cull all its animals, and force farmers to help in the slaughter, with little right of appeal. "
Royal Commissions are government appointed advisory committees who's role is to investigate subjects refereed by the Government. thereafter if necessary recommendation are made for legislation.
however, the Government is not obligated to follow the recommendation made by the Royal Commission.