Acute Neuro

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  1. Thrombosis CVA
    • PATHO: a building up of a clot of atherosclerotic material on the inside of a blood vessel
    • ONSET: Gradual onsiet.. may be TIA first
    • EFFECTS: local may be les permanent damage
    • RX: clot busters, Glucocorticoids
    • PROGNOSIS: good
  2. Embolus CVA
    • PATHO: a traveling clos that becomes lodged in a smaller vessel
    • ONSET: Sudden
    • EFFECTS: localized
    • RX: clot buseters
    • PROGNOSIS: good if local and only one embolus
  3. Hemorrhage CVA
    • PATHO: hypertension, arterisoclerosis, Bleeding into the brain
    • ONSET: sudden occurs with activity
    • EFFECTS: widespread, severe often fatal
    • RX: MRI, decrease ICP, Bed rest, surgery
    • PROGNOSIS: not good more widespread
  4. Meningitis
    • Cause: bacteria
    • Predisposing Factors: weakened immune system, expsure to bacteria, existing infection
    • Patho: microorganisms reach the brain via the blood from another site
    • S&S: HA, back pain, photophobia, nuchal rigidity, vomiting, irritablility, lethargy, stuport, fever, chills
    • Rx: aggressive antibiotics, in neonates increased risk of fatality
  5. Brain Abscess
    • Localized infection often in the frontal or temporal lobes
    • Results in increased ICP
    • S&S: depend on teh exact location and extent of the increased pressure
    • Rx: surgiacal drainage/ anitiotics
  6. Encephalitis
    • Viral infection of the connective tissue of the brain, especially basal nuclei. Leads to inflammation and necrosis
    • Cause: exposure to infected insects
    • S&S depends on the location and extend of the necorsis
    • Rx: anit-viral meds, supportive care
  7. Polio Syndrome
    • A virus spread by direct contact in 1950's attacks motor neurons of spinal cord and medulla
    • S&S: from minor flu symptoms to respiratory failure and paralysis, decrease reflexes, paralysis, imbalance or muscles
    • Rx: supportive care
    • Trearpy: muscle imbalance, movement problems, functional problems, avoid fatuge, resp & cardiac stress, Use of bracing and assistive devices
  8. Guilliane Barre' Syndrome
    • Cause: idopathic
    • Patho: inflammation of the PNS, demyelinization, axon dextrcion
    • Stages: acute, stable, recovery
    • Onset: LE-trunk-UE from distal to proximal
    • Recovery: reverse order
  9. Most common sites for Spinal Cord Injury
    C3, C6, C7, T10-T12
  10. Neurological Level
    • Lowest level of NORMAL sensory and motor funcion
    • Complete injury
    • Incomplete injury
  11. Central Cord Syndrome
    • Walking Quad
    • Lesion usually incervial Region
    • Greater UE weakness then LE
    • Occures in delder due to narrowing of stenotic changes or hyperextension injury
  12. Anterior Cord Syndrome
    • Variable motor and sensory
    • Preserved dorsal columns
    • Intact proprioception
    • Anterior Spinal Artery Stroke
    • Flexion Injury
  13. Brown Sequard Syndrome
    • Hemi
    • Secion of the anterior or posterior cord
    • Knife wound
  14. Conus Medullaris Syndrome
    • Injury to sacral and lumbar nerve roots
    • Areflexic bladder, bowel and decreased sexual function
    • Motor impairment of LE's with out sensory Impairment
  15. Hypo/hypertheriam
    • disruption of ANS pathway from hypothalmus
    • Pt is easily too hot/ too cold
    • Increases risk of heat stroke
  16. Sexual Disfunction
    • many males can reflex erections but do not ejaculate
    • womena resume mentrual cycle and can conceive. high risk pregnancy
  17. Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
    • Definition: a SNS disorder tat occurs at site of injury or trauma usually in the UE or LEs pina and swelling
    • Cause: traum, post op, neuro or medical conditions, iatrogenic or idiopathic
    • Effects: SNS produces n excessive or abnormal repsonse viscious cycle of pain & swelling
    • S&S buring pain, muscle spasm, softening of bone joint tenderness or stiffness, hypersensitivity to touch
  18. Acute RSD
    • onse of severe, burning pain, hyperaethesia, localized edema, muscle spams, stiffness, and limited mobility
    • Faster than normal nail and hair growth
  19. Subactue RSD
    • pain is even more severe and diffuse, hair becomes scant, nails become brittle, spotty osteoporisis, join inflammation, muscle wasting
    • 3-12 months
  20. Chronic RSD
    • Marked trophic changes become irreversible
    • aptrophy if the muscles
    • bone deossification has become marked and siffue
    • contractures and deromity develop
    • pale dry
    • can spread
  21. Neuropathy
    • disease of the nerves
    • Causes: diabetes, alcoholism/drug abuse, decrease diet, orther nutritional disorders
    • S&S: motor and sensory or both
    • Medical Management: manage cause
  22. Neuropraxia
    • Mild stretch or compression injury
    • Myelin layer damaged
    • Condtion is reversible
    • Recovery is excellent in a matter of days
  23. Axonotmesis
    • Meylin and axon are damaged
    • Degeneration occures distal to lesion
    • Condition is reversible
    • Prognosis is good
  24. Neurotmesis
    • Significan damge to fasciculus and pernerium
    • Prognosos for motor is ore
    • sensory recovery is poor
  25. Radial Nerve Injury
    • wrist drop and extensor paralysis of wrist forearm and fingers
    • Unable to graps objects adequately or make a fist
  26. Median Nerve Injury
    • Ape hand
    • hand inclines to the ulnar side
    • unable to oppose flex thumb and indes finger
    • decreased grip in thum indes middle finger
    • loss of pinch, precision grip
    • Loss of sensation and function
  27. Ulnar nerve injury
    • claw hand
    • unable to extend PIP, DIP of any finger
    • weak wrist flexion
    • unable to adduct thumb
    • decreased sensation of 5th and ring finger
Card Set
Acute Neuro
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