Cog Neuro Exam #3

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  1. Long -term memory refers to
    permanent stores of knowledge
  2. Atkinson & Shiffrin assumed LTM was how many stores
  3. Two main types of memory
    • Declarative (Explicit)
    • Nondeclarative (implicit)
  4. Two types of Declarative memory
    • Facts (Semantic)
    • Events (Episodic)
  5. Four types of Nondeclarative memory
    • 1. Skills and habits
    • 2. Priming
    • 3. Simple classical conditioning
    • 4. Nonassociative learning
  6. Explicit Memory (and example)
    • LTM knowledge that can be retrieved and then reflected on consciously (conscious access required to engage)
    • Ex: Remembering your elementary school
  7. Implicit Memory
    • Knowledge that can influence thought and behavior without any necessary involvement of conscious awareness
    • Ex: Dialing a number when you see the phone but being unable to say the number from memory
  8. Episodic Memory
    • Memory for specific episodes in our lives occuring at particular places/times (what you had for lunch)
    • autobiographical
    • EVENTS
  9. Semantic Memory
    like a mental dictionary it contains knowledge about words, symbols, general knowledge about the world and memory for other facts

  10. Types of procedural memory
    • -motor skills
    • -perceptual learning
    • -grammar acquisition
    • -classical conditioning
  11. Perceptual learning/perceptual priming
    you are able to recognize something on the first exposure, on the second exposure you require less perceptual information to determine the image
  12. What kind of memory is ......swinging a bat, the rules, the first time you went to a game
    • implicit (procedural)
    • explicit (semantic)
    • explicit (episodic)
  13. Encoding
    Getting info into the system (earning, studying)
  14. Retrieval
    Getting info out of the system (accessing, remembering)
  15. Storage
    Holding info in LTM
  16. LTM Stages
    Encoding -> Storage -> Retrieval
  17. Factors that influence LTM Encoding
    • Repetition (spaced vs. massed)
    • Encoding variability
    • Generation
    • Rehearsal
    • Levels of Processing (transfer appropriate processing, encoding specificity principle)
  18. Repetition (spaced vs. massed)
    Zechmeister showed that from a Word List Recall, words studied twice had better recall performance when studied distributed over time (Spaced) vs. crammed into consecutively (massed)
  19. Is repetition enough? Example-
    No- penny example
  20. Encoding Variability example
    • Dog-Lion Paired Associates test
    • Variability group had the words Dog-Lion and the pictures of a dog and lion alternated.
    • Condition group had only the words dog-lion repeatedly
    • The variability group had better recall over the amount of trial
  21. Study showing that rehearsal is not sufficient
    • 4-digit number memory task (Glenberg et al):
    • 1. study 4-digit number for 2 seconds
    • 2. repeat word aloud for 2, 6, or 18 seconds
    • 3. recall 4-digit number
    • 4. surprise memory task-recall repeated word

    • Results: no signficiant difference for word recall based on rehearsal time (2, 6, or 18)
    • Conclusion: Mere rehearsal is not effective for long-term storage of information
  22. Types of Rehearsal
    • Maintenance Rehearsal
    • Elaborative Rehearsal
  23. Maintenance Rehearsal
    • Repetetive recycling without further thought/processing (like Glenburg et al. study)
    • -Not very effective for LTM encoding

    (how much you repeat a word has no effect on whether you remember it)
  24. Elaborative Rehearsal
    • Rehearsal that emphasizes encoding of meaning
    • Is effective for LTM encoding
  25. Performance is better for which type of rehearsal?
  26. Generation
    Probability of recognition as a function of typeo of elaboration (semantic or rhyme) and whether it was generated or read)
  27. Generation experiment
    best recognition for words that were generated rather than read, and for pairs with semantic meaning (synonym) than for words that rhymed
  28. Why is performance during elaborative rehearsal better than maintenance rehearsal?
    the more elaborated your processing, the more preserved the trace is
  29. why is generate better than read and synonym better than rhyme
    a differnt level of processing- just rote or sound has worse memory bc you don't have to relate to it, it is a more shallow level of processing
  30. Craig & Lockhart
    • Memory is determined by how the person processes it, not by how long the information stays in the system.
    • Therefore:
    • Deep processing leads to strong LTM traces
    • Shallow processing leads to poor LTM traces
  31. Levels of Processing (is rehearsal important? is type of processing important?)
    rehearsal is relatively unimportant, type of processing is more important
  32. Levels of Processing Paradigm Craik & Tulving
    • 3 types of processing respond Y/N
    • Structure (is word in caps)
    • Phonological (does word rhyme)
    • Semantic (does word fill in the sentence blank)
  33. Results of Processing Paradigm
    • Response Time:
    • Shortest for structure, then phonological, longest for semantic (suggesting that deepest processing is for semantic)
    • Recognition of Words:
    • least remembered for structure, same order (suggests that memory is best for items processed deeper)
  34. Does intent to learn help experiment
    • Two groups: intentional (knew taking part in free recall experiment)
    • Incidental: did not know

    • people are told to orient to different attributes of the words.
    • As type of processing gets deeper, recall gets better, but even when not told to remember later on, the word recall is comparable to that when people are told to orient to the pleasantness of the word
    • shows that the intention to learn does not influence recall performance!
  35. Patient HM Medical History
    • major seizure -age 16
    • bilateral medial-temporal lobe resection (hippocampus and nearby structures)
    • discovery of anterograde amnesia
  36. HM Summary
    • Average IQ
    • normal perception, well-mannered
    • normal language comprehension-understands jokes
    • can engage in sophisticated conversation
    • as soon as you leave the room- he forgets all about you and the conversation
  37. HM example with HE
    McDonalds drivethrough and repeatedly telling him about knowing a guy name John McDonald and telling the story
  38. HM Interview
    Elvis Presely and Kennedy conversation
  39. Amnesia
    Some brain injury has rendered the patient incapable of retaining new experiences, but leaves other cognitive functions relatively intact
  40. HM suffers from
    • Amnesia from brain injury,
    • his nondeclarative memory is in tact, but declarative is not.
    • He is unable to create new memories
  41. Three cortices of the Hippocampus
    • Entorhinal Cortex
    • Perirhinal Cortex
    • Parahippocampal Cortex
  42. HM's brain damage
    • part of the hippocampus in tact but all the tissue input was severed during surgery.
    • bilateral damage to medial-temporal lobe structures:
    • Entorhinal cortex removed entirely
    • Perirhinal cortex and hippocampus extensive damage
  43. Engram
    • the memory trace
    • may be in the medial temporal lobe
    • hippocampus
  44. perceptions of places are associated with
    PPA- parahippocampal place area
  45. the medial temporal lobes
    are interconnected with most of the rest of the brain
  46. Patient RB
    • Loss of CA1 field of hippocampus (type of cells) after ischemic episode
    • Damage localized to CA1 subregion of hippocampus
    • loss of spatial configuration
  47. anoxia
    lack of oxygen causes damage
  48. ischemia
    (Stroke) damage to tissue from blood
  49. Hippocampus divisions (unimodal and polymodal)
    • 4 Main Divisions based on cytoarchitechtonics (cell structure)
    • 1. S
    • 2. CA1
    • 3. CA3
    • 4. DG
    • These feed into the 3 main cortices
    • entorhinal
    • perhirhinal
    • parahippocampal
  50. RB on copy task
    • 6 mos after amnesia onest cannot copy from memory 10-20 mins later
    • 23 mos after amnesia onset copy is a little better
  51. Papez circuit
    • hippocampus ->
    • mamillary bodies (projects via fornix) ->
    • thalamas->
    • cortex->
    • hippocampus
  52. what happens when you have damage to one of the paths in the papez circuit?
    results in anterograde amnesia
  53. Patient NA
    Radar tech for air force- fencing foil went up right nostril
  54. RB's brain damage
    Thalamus and mammilary bodies, hippocampus OK
  55. RB's cogntive damage
    • severe amnesia- inability to encode new memories
    • forgets the events on TV when commercial comes on
    • lives as he did in the 50s
  56. How is RB's working memory?
    Working memory is in tact, but when he disengages (commercial), he forgets (no long term memory to store)
  57. Korsakoff's syndrome
    • Damage to mammilary bodies
    • thalamus
    • medial/inferior frontal lobes
  58. Korsakoff's patients
    • infabulation (lying), memory damage, inhibition damage.
    • often make thinigs up
  59. Two types of amnesia
    • Retrograde
    • Anterograde
  60. Retrograde Amnesia
    • 1. Older memories are better remembered (Ribot's Law)
    • 2. Retrograde amnesia tends to shrink over time (lost memory may be recovered over time)
  61. Brain damage and amnesia on a continuum
    • distant past---recent past----new information
    • some memory -retrograde ------anterograde
  62. Shrinking Retrograde amnesia
    memories before the brain damage in the distant past are slowly recovered, the distant past is remembered first (this is the slide with the three arrows)
  63. Example of Shrinking Retrograde Amnesia
    • DC bus driver moved to boston to work in drugstore, then mattress factory
    • had temporal lobe hematoma resulting in amnesia
    • 1 mo. later: says he lives in DC
    • 4 mos later: says he lives in boston, works in a drugstore
    • later: knows he works in mattress factory
    • discharge: remembers 24 hours before accident
  64. does anterograde return like retrograde for the shrinking retrograde?
  65. Electroconvulsive Therapy patients
    • Memory loss
    • retrograde amnesia for roughly 6 mos prior to ECT treatment
    • anterograde amnesia for roughly 2 mos post ECT treatment
    • memory eventually returns to normal
  66. Transient Global Amnesia
    some disruption with retrograde amnesia they they recover from, so transient though that cannot figure out the specific nature of the deficit
  67. Consolidation Theory
    • Formation of long term memories of engrams
    • A memory for a visual event has a visual pathway
  68. Memory Encoding (Consolidation Theory)
    • Experience of the event- sum total of what the event was (visual aspects, memory, all parts)
    • Interconnectedness of the medial temporal lobe structures
    • set of regions is integrated as a composite of the event
  69. Perception of an event example
    • Visual pathway --> perception of event
    • Elaborated processing--> where/what pathways
    • Further elaborating--> this is nice, i remember when...
    • Back to hippocampus- and all nodes to hippocampus activated,
    • Consolidation--> all composites connected to hippocampus
    • when you have a memory cue- that thought is connected to the hippocampus, and hippocampus connected to everthing else so you re-experience
  70. Consolidation-
    representation within visual and other association areas
  71. HM Consolidation (ask Amishi about this)
    • One node can activate entire memory without hippocampal involvement
    • if the memory is already formed, does not require hippocampal activation
  72. "Soap opera amnesia"
    • retrograde without anterograde amnesia
    • -this has never been observed after brain injury
    • "fugue states" are different- may relate to psychological trauma
  73. What kinid of memory is impaired in amnesia?
    LTM- mostly episodic
  74. Main difference between implicit and explicit
    implicit does not require conscious access
  75. Mirror Tracing Task and HM
    • trace image in mirror and rate and errors are tracked
    • teh # of errors decreases with numerous trials
    • day 2- start rusty but overall better (once learned it is maintained)
    • HM starts rusty but ends up where he left off day 1 because this doesnt require conscious access
  76. Serial Reaction Time Test
    • Sequence of flashes feel random but are actually a sequence
    • person improves on the task over time but doesn't realize they are improving
    • again shows an implicit process
  77. two tasks taht show implicit processing
    • Mirror Tracing Task
    • Serial Reaction Time Task
  78. Are motor skills in tact in amnesic patients? How do we know?
    Yes they are, Motor skill learning is ok- we know from Mirror tracing and spatial reaction time tasks
  79. Mirror Reading
    • people show improvement even after 90 days
    • normal controls don't differ on this task from korsakoff and amnesic pts (everyone improves)
  80. Tower of Hanoi
    • At the end of Day 2, amnesic group is comparable to the control group.
    • They may not remember the explicit rule, but get back into task through implicit processing
    • Controls explicitly learn the rule and can benefit from it
  81. Two long term memory systems
    • Basal Ganglia
    • Medial Temporal Lobe
  82. Basal Ganglia
    • Caudate, putamen, globus pallidus
    • habit/skill learning
    • damaged in huntington's, impaired in parkinsons
  83. Medial Temporal Lobe (in LTM)
    • Hippocampus, entorhinal, perhirinal cortex)
    • Declarative Memory
  84. Classical Conditioning
    • UCS: smell of food
    • UCR: salivation
    • CS: sound of bell
    • CR: salivation
  85. Classical Conditioning with amnesic patients and eye blink
    • UCS: air puff
    • UCR: eyeblink
    • CS: light/tone
    • CR: eyeblink

    so- can learn the association and retain it for at least one day- but have no memory for the procedure they learned just 10 minutes later
  86. Gollin Partial Picture Test
    • parts of a picture until the whole picture is represented-
    • you learn images and can ID it if you have seen it before
    • HM does better on this task with repetition.
  87. Priming Task
    • give list of words
    • give word fragment and ask to complete word
    • performance is better when asked to complete words in the list vs. new words
  88. Stem Completion Priming Task
    • Given a list of words and asked how much do you like each of them
    • Then free recall of words, cued recall (word completion with a list word), and completion (with any word)
    • Results: Amnesic have impaired declarative (free recall and word recognition), but priming is preserved as seen by performance on the stem completion task being no different than the recognition)
  89. Double dissociation bw priming and declarative memory
    • MS - declarative normal, perceptual priming impaired
    • HM- declarative impaired, perceptual priming normal
  90. source amnesia
    know info but cant remember when you learned it
  91. HM damaged region
    Anterograde (facts episodes)
    Retrograde (facts episodes)
    • HM Hippocampus medial and temporal lobes
    • Anterograde facts ??
    • Anterograde episodes X
    • Retrograde facts OK
    • Retrograde episodes ??
  92. Patient KC
    • Motorcycle accident
    • Damage to medial and temporal lobe
    • both anterograde and retrograde amnesia for episodic info
    • memory for facts is intact, and can learn new facts
    • What KC knows about his past is functionally the same category as his knowledge about other people's past (photograph of him with curly hair)
  93. Can KC learn new facts?
    unclear (perceptual cues with words)
  94. KC damaged region
    Anterograde (facts episodes)
    Retrograde (facts episodes)
    • KC Hippocampus
    • Anterograde facts ??
    • Anterograde episodes X
    • Retrograde facts OK
    • Retrograde episodes X
  95. Patients Beth, Kate, John
    • suffered hippocampal damage (perihrhinal and parahippocampal cortex intact)
    • Severe amnesia
  96. Story- geometric design- and 16 word recall taks for Jon, Kate, Beth
    Ok performance on the immediate recall and very poor performance on the delayed recall
  97. Rey-Osterreich Figure Copy TAsk
    Copy is normal, delayed recall is very poor
  98. Beth Jon Kate- damaged region
    Anterograde (facts episodes)
    Retrograde (facts episodes)
    • Beth Jon Kate
    • Hippocampus damage
    • Anterograde facts OK
    • Anterograde episodes X
    • Retrograde facts NA
    • Retrograde episodes NA
  99. What Kind of Memory is impaired in all amnesics?
    Episodic is more strongly impacted than semantic memories, although sometimes semantic is impaired, but usally ok
  100. Syndrome where we see opposite amnesic pattern?
    Yes- Semantic Dementia
  101. Semantic Dementia
    • Damage is in the anterior/lateral temporal lobes
    • usually caused by progressive, degenerative disease (like Pick's)
    • Results in severe retrograde amnesia for semantic (not episodic) information
  102. Semantic Dementia (SD) examples
    ask what a violin is have no idea, but can describe teh important events in the their lives and speech is not repetetive
  103. SD vs. Alzheimers
    • Alzheimers- hippocampal atrophy
    • SD- left lateral temporal lobe atrophy
  104. SD's damaged region
    Anterograde (facts episodes)
    Retrograde (facts episodes)
    • SD
    • Lateral temporal Cortex damage
    • Anterograde facts X
    • Anterograde episodes OK
    • Retrograde facts X
    • Retrograde episodes OK
Card Set
Cog Neuro Exam #3
Long-Term Memory
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