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The scientific study of how animals behave.
- mechanistic causes
- operate in shorter ecological time periods
- selective causes
- occur in loner evolutionary time periods
fixed action patterns
- sequences of unlearned behaviors triggered by a sign stimulus
- once initiated, the sequence continues through completion
- Fig 51.3: Three spined stickle back males
a change of behavior resulting from a animal's experience
- learned behavior
- irreversible type of learning that is limited to a specific time period in an animal's life (sensitive period)
- Fig 51.10: Konrad Lorenz and his geese
Example of imprinting
- conservationalists are manipulating the imprinting behavior when reintroducing migratory birds back into their former habitats
- whooping cranes, trumpeter swans
- chicks imprinted on ultralight aircraft or their pilots can be trained to follow migratory routes
- any kind of interaction betwen two animals
- interactions evolve due to evolutionary fitness
no prolonged mating associations between individuals
one mating pair in a prolonged relationship
one individual mates with many
one male mates with many females
one female mates with many males, setting up a situation of sperm competition
- enhances social behaviors
- plumage displays
- sexual swellings in primates
volatile chemicals that tigger behaviors
female insects attract males
released by ants en route to attract males
released by dying yellow jackets trigger aggressive behaviors in surviving memebers of the colony
- behavior that reduces ones individual's fitness but increases another's fittness
- can only be observed in social species
- naked mole rats
- William Hamilton
- the total effective contribution to the next generation including the offspring of close relatives inclusives fitness also includes characters or behaviors that allow close relatives to produce more offspring
natural selection that favors altrustic behavior by enhancing the reproductive succeslativs of relatives
coefficient of relatedness
the proportion of identical (homologous) gewnes between two individuals
- selection favors altruism when rB>C
- r= coefficient of relatedness
- B= the benfit (number of extra offspring) produced by altruism
- C= the cost (number of fewer offspring) produced by altruist
the study of interactions of organisms with each other and with their enviornments
- protection the environmentalism is protection of the enviornment
- Rachel Carson showed the value of applying ecological data to environmental problems and is considered to be the founder of the modern envirnmental movement
determined by biotic and abiotic factors
- scavengers and decomposers
within and between species
- 1. mineral nutrients in rocks, soil, or dissolved in water effect PH
- 2. Climate Patterns
global climate patterns
restricted climate patterns
solary intensity and temperature
- affect climate patterns
- latitudinal variation
- season variation due to the tilt of the earth's axis
- in aquatic enviornments the sunlight is limiting
Global air circulation
- affects climate patterns
- vertical circulating cells
- horizontal rotational displacement
- affects climate patterns
- california current
- gulf stream
- ocean currents influence the temperature and humidity of overlying air massess
- ocean currents may cause upwelling, which circulates the nutrients
- affects climate patterns
- rainshadow effect
- air masses moving up over mountain ranges lose moisture, but regain moisture as they pass down the other side.
- deserts occur on the leeward side of the mountain ranges
- mountain ranges create shadow
has sufficient light for photosynthesis to occur
not enought light for photosynthesis to occure
- critical limiting factor in aquatic ecosystems
- every meter of water depth absorbs 45% of red light and 2% of blue light
- occur in temperate lakes in the spring and the autumn
- brings the nutrients to the surface of the waters
- aquatic biome
- selt concentrations are less than 1%
- aquatice biomes
- salt concentrations are greater that 3%
- freshwater lake
- high oxygen concentration
- expeirence seasonal thermoclines (layes of rapid temperature change
- expierence turnover
- aquatic biome
- limited to photic zones with temps 20-300 C
- corals: diverse cnidarians with algal symbionts that build carbonate skeletons
- fish and invertebrate diversity is high
- aquatic biomes
- freshwater or marine
- ares periodically covered by water long enought to support aquatic plants
- high capacity to absorb water and filter nutrients and chemical pollutants
- large prarie pothole marshe in Dekalb County Forest Preserve System
- one of the few undisturbed marshes in an area that was never farmed
- Emergent native vegitation, cattails, surrounds seasonally open water
- Sandbar willow grows along the shorlines
- migrating waterfowl
- 115 birds species documented in this marsh
- wetland dominated by sphagnum moss
- Volo peat bog in Northern Illinois
- Occupy a little over 1% of the earth's surface and store 25-30% of the global carbon emessions
- determined by climate
upper layer formed by the vegetation in the biome
indicate the expected types of terrestrial biomes given annual rainfall and temperatures
- terrestrial biome
- steady annual rainfall
- competetion for sunlight
- multiple layers
- trees generally broadleaf evergreen trees that support epiphytes
- high diversity
- species richness
tropical dry forests
have seasonal rain
- terrestrial biome
- least percipitation, less than 30 cm/year
- extreme temperature changes
- 1.defences in plants ( spines and chemical)
- 2. water efficiency (C4 photosynthesis)
- 3. nocturnality
- terrestrial biome
- native praries
- found in areas with seasonal rainfall, hot summers, and cold winters.
- grasses and forbs persist and periodic fires kill young trees and shrubs
study how population characteristics are determined by biotic and abiotic factors
- size, density, dispersion, and age structure
- determined by natural selection
cause trade-off between life history characters such as size and number of offspring
depends on access to food and mates
estimating population size
- N= mn/x
- N= total population size
- m= number of individuals captured in the first sample
- n= number of individuals captured in the second sample
- x= number of recaptured individuals
- radio transmitters and camera traps
logistic population growth
population growth slows because of limiting factors
exponential population growth
no predictable limit to population size
human population growth
- exponential growth until recently
- over 6.75 billion
- The human population growth is largley due to declines in death rate because of improved nutrition, sanitation, and better medical care
global fertility rates
- have not declined uniformly
- some are stable ( Sweden)
- birth rates are low and the population size is started to decline (Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan and UIK)
- when regional populations shift from:
- 1. zero populatin growth: relatively hight birth and death rates
- 2. decreasing death rates, but continuing high birth rates
- 3. relatively low birth and death rates
- social and cultural changes are responsible for demographic transitions
- the maximum population size that the available resources in the envoirnment can support
- population increase until the point where some essential resource (food, space) become limiting
total of water and land areas required by each person, city, or nation to produce all of the resources it comsumes and to absorb all of the waste that it generates
group of populations of different species living close enough to interact
- effect that the interaction has on the survival and reproduction of the interacting species
- the main focus of a community's ecology
sum of a speacies' uses of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment
- +: increase in fitness
- 0: no affect on fitness
- -: decrease in fitness
- (+/+) interaction causing the fitness of interactin species to increase
- sophisticated adaptions: behaviors, synchronization of life cycles and specialized structures that evolves
reciprocal adaptions that arise between two species because of their interactions
plants and their pollinators
- example of mutualism
- yucca plants and their moth pollinators have complex coevolutionary adaptions
- ropical american bull's horn acaias and stinging ants
- rarely observed to and are somewhat difficult confirm
- cattle egrets find more insect prey around grazing water buffalot
- barnacles attain mobility when attached to whales
- occurs when similar resources are utilized by two different species
- results in competitive exclusion, where the species that uses resources even slightly more efficiently will eventully elimnate the other species
realized niche vs potential niche
- example of interspecific competition
- the realized niche of an organism may be smalled than its potentail niche because
- example of interspecific competition
- cause resource partitioning between sympatric species that use resources in slightly different ways
- divide the enviornment into different microhabitats
- example of interspecific competition
- the change in body structue to permit resource partitioning.
- populations of two species will resemble each other more when they are allopatric (noncompeting) when they are sympatric
- interaction in which one organism eats another
camouflages predators and/or prey
gives a harmless animal a dangerous apperance
associated with unpalatable, toxic, or dangerous prey
factors that shape communities
- 1. overall diversity
- 2. dominant species
- 3. keystone species
- 4. foundation species
- 5. facilltators
- species richness: the number of species in a community
- relative abundance: the number of individuals of each species
those with the greatest relative abundance or most biomass
disproportionate impact on community structure because of their niches
reduce populations of highly competitive prey
- mycorrhizal fungi
- nitrogen-fixing bacteria
- form the basis of food webs
- agave plants in New World deserts
- ecosystem engineers
- cause physical changes to the envoirnment and may facilitate thesurvival and reproduction of other species
- foundation species that have positive effect on the fitness of other species in the community
- black rush plants are facilitators in salt marshes, preventing salt buildup and oxygen depletion so that species richness is increased
tendency of a community to reach and maintain and equilibrium composition of speciecs in spite of disturbance
- natural components of ecosystems (storms droughts fires or floods)
- caused by human activities (clearing for farming, urban devolpment, and mining)
- divide communities into patches
- recovery from moderate disturbance can create conditions that increase speacies diversity
- ecological succession
- trasitions in a community's composition over time
in a relatively lifeless area without soil afer a glacial retreat or formation of a volcanic island
in a recently disturbed area with intact soil
succession occurs because of...
- inhibition due to interspecific competitition
- facilitation in which earlier communities after environmental conditions so that they become favorable for other immigrant species
human activities that cause ecosystem disturbance
- 1. acid precipitation occurs when emissions of sulfur and nitrogen from fuel combustion combine with water so that precipitation containstsulfuric and nitric acids
- 2. biological magnification of toxins with increasing trophic level.
- 3.carbon crisis is arising because of "carbonization" of the atmosphere
- 4.ozone depletion
- 5. human induced eutrophication (cultural eutrophication)
- 6. disruption of nutrient cycling due to fertilizer run off
fossil fuels produce carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas
- biodiversity is concentrated in hot spots
- tropical forests, coral reefs, and chaparral are habitats for many endemic species found nowhere else so preservation efforts are focused on these hotspots to conserve more species
Mark Davis, Macalester Colleget
- suggests that not all introduced are necessarly harmful
- tree-thinking (phylogeny) may be useful to predict the impact of introduced species. highly invasive grass species are less related to native species
zoned reserve systems
preserve the ecological landscapes with natural gradations from one type of ecosystems to another
BP (deep horizon) oil spil
- exploded April 4th 2010
- released estimated 50,000 barrels ( 2 mil gallons) per day
- overall about 5 million barrels
- found at sea surface, deep waters, along wetlands of the Gulf Coast, in coral reefs, and artic
- sealed at the end of July
soultions to the oil spill
- 1. chemical dispersants : solvents, surfactants
- 2. bioremediation: use of organisms to detoxify polluted ecosystems
apply ecological principals in developing ways to return degraded ecosytems to condistions similar as possible to thier natural predegraded state
- natural resources has an economic value
- Costa Rica has a program to compensate private landowners for different classes of ecosystem services
- all the process in the natural ecosystems that sustain human life
- purification of air and water
- providing and protecting storehouses for global carbron emissions
- flood and erosion control
- protecting invertebrates to pollinate crop, control pests, and preserve soils
- detoxification and decomposition of wastes
climate law AB32
- dec 2010
- giving owners of power plants, regineries and other major polluters financial incentives to emit fewer greenhouse gases
- political activism
- member of the Earth Policy Institute
- urges political action to mitigate the carbon/climate crisis
preserving natural forest in Costa Rice near coffee plantations stablize bee populations
- primatologist and conservationist
- "people everywhere need to realized that what we do individually every day does make a difference. If everybody begins thinking of the consequences of the little choices they make- what they eat, what they wear, what they buy, and how they get from A to B- and acting accordingly, these millions of small changes will create the kinds of larger changes we must have...-because I don't think we've got that much time left"
- undergoing a demographic transition and the rate of population growth is decreasing.
- people of Costa Rica is a model for successful conservation
- improved quality of life with greater life expectancy, decreasing infant mortality, and increasing literacy rate
fixed action patterns; sign stimuli
- ultimate causation of evolved behaviors
- male stickle back fish attack other male stickle that invade it nesting territory
- red belly= sign stimulus and releases agressive behavior
- males without the red the belly do not produce an agressive response
- male North American prarie voles associate closely with their mates
- mate for life
- they contribute a lot to taking care of the young
- very devoted husband and father
- single gene influences this behavior.
Behavior can be controlled by many genes.
- song of the green lacewing species
- expiernment Charles Henry, Lucia Martinez, and Kent Holsinger. They crossed males and females from two different speices
- two morphologically identical species of lacewings that sing different courtship songs
- compare songs of male and female parents with the hybrids
- hybrid offspring had features of both parents with hybrids
- hybrid offspring had featurs of both parents' song
- under control of multiple genes
altuistic behavior example
- naked mole rat
- queen nursing offspring while surrounded by other members of the community
- decreases own's fitness but increases the fitness of other individuals
kin selection and altriuism
- Belding's ground squirrels
- male-female differe in altruistic behavior once weaned from the mother
- females are more likely to live near close relatives than males
- alarm calls that warn the relatives increase the inclusive fitness of the female altruist
the coefficent of relatedness between siblings
- Any allele present on one chromosome of either parent will behave similarly.
- The coefficient of relatedness between the two siblings is .5
factors that limit geographic distribution
- dispersal: area inaccessible or insufficent time
- behavior: habitat selection
- biotic factors: predation, parasitism, competition and disease
- abiotic factors: Chemical, water oxygen salinity pH soil nutirents physical, tempurature light soil structure
- fire moisture
sea urchins limit seeweed distribution
- Expeirment: W.J. Fletcher University of Sydney
- if sea urchins are limiting biotic factor, then more seeweeds should invade an area from which sea urchins have been removed
- increase in seeweed so the sea urchins limit the seaweed distribution
latitudinal variation in sunlight intensity
- Earth's curved shaped causes latitudinal variation in the intensity of sunlight.
- sunlight hits the tropics directly. more heat and light per unit of surface area are delivered there.
- at higher latitudes, sunlight strikes Earth at an oblique angle and the light energy is more diffused on Earth's surface
Seasonal Variation in Sunlight Intensity
- Earth's tilt causes seasonal variaton in the intensity of solar radiation.
- tropics experience the greatest annual input of solar radiation and the least seasonal variation.
- the seasonal variations of light and temperature increase toward the poles
Global Air Circulation Precipition Patterns
- Intense solar radiation near the equator initiates a global patter of air circulation and precipitation.
- High temperatures in the tropics evaporate water from Earth's surface and cause warm, wet air masses to rise and flow towards the poles
- The rising air masses releases much of thier water content and creates percipitation in tropical regions.
- The high-altitude dry air masses descend towards the Earth, absorbing moisture from the land and creaing an aird climate in deserts.
- some descending air flows towards the poles and then the air masses rise again and release percipitation but less than the tropics
- some cold dry air flows to the poles and it descends and heads back towards the equator and absorbing mositure and creating the compartively rainless and bitterly cold climates of the polar regions
Global Wind Patterns
- Air flows close to the Earth's surface and creates a predictable wind pattern.
- Earth rotates on an axis and so the land near the equator moves faster than the poles.
- Deflecting winds from vertical paths create the eaterly and westerly flows.
- Cooling trade wind blow from east to west in the tropics.
- Prevailing westerlies blow from west to east in the temperate zones and are the regions between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antartic Circle
the great ocean conveyor belt
- Water is warmed at the equator and flows along the ocean surface to the North Atlantic
- It cools, becomes denser, and sinks thousands of meters
- Moist air moves in off the ocean and encounters mountains, then it flows upward, cools at higher altitudes and then drops an large amount of water as percipitation.
- On the leeward side of the mountains there is little percipitation. This creates a rainshadow and often creates a desert.
- Winter: coldest water below surface of the ice and water is progressively warmer at the deeper level of the lake. Ice is less dense than water.
- Spring: the sun melts the ice and the surface water warms and sinks below the cooler layers. Winds mix the water to great depth and bring oxygen to the bottom waters and nutrients to the surface.
- Summer: thermocline where the warmer water is towards the top and the colder water towards the bottom.
- Fall: surface water cools rapidly and sinks below and remixes the water until the surface begins to freeze
Biomes of North America are plotted by the annual mean temperature and precipitation in the different biomes
- Chages as individuals are added to or removed from a population.
- Births and immigration add individuals to a population.
- Deaths and emigration remove individuals from a population.
Example of the Mark-Recapture Method
- Scientists capture, mark, and then release certain individuals.
- Gormley: 180 Hector's dolphin by photographing their distinctive dorsal fins from boats
- Estimated the population size by using N=mn/x
- Clumped: many animals group together where food is abundant, sea stars
- Uniform: uniform spacing and is maintained by aggressive interactions between nieghbors, king penguins
- Random: dandelions grow from windblown seeds that land at randon and later germinate
variation of size
- Size of seed crops in plants.
- Dandelions grow quickly and produce a large number of seeds and ensure that at least some will grow in plants and eventually produced seeds
- The Coconut palm produces a moderate number of large seeds. The seed's large endosperm provides the nutrients for the embryo which is an adaption that helps ensure the success of a large number of offspring
Example of population growth that is predicted by exponential growth.
- geometric population growth
- growing at a constant rate
- creates a j-shape no limiting factors
- African Elephant in Kruger National Park in South Africa
Human use photosynthetic products.
- High in places where the population density is high and where people consumes the most resources individually.
- ecological footprint
Example of Mutualism
- Acacia trees in Central and South America have hollow thorns that house stinging aunts. The aunts feed on the nectar produced by the tree and on protein rich swellings.
- The aunts attack anything that touches the tree, remove fungal spores, small herbivores, and debris.
Example of Commensalism.
- between cattle egrets and water buffalo.
- cattle egrets find more insect prey around grazing buffalo
- Between Lizards in the Dominican Republic.
- All of the lizards feeds on insects and small arthropods.
- Competition for food is reduced because each lizard speices has a different preferred perch and occupies a distinct niche
Species influenced by interspecific competition.
- Ecologist Joseph Connell studied two barnicle speices.
- They have stratified distribution on rocks along the coast of Scotland.
- Chthamalus is usually found higher on the rocks than Balanus.
- Interspecific competition makes the realized niche of Chthamalus smaller thans its fundamental niche.
- Connell removed Balnus from the rocks in several sites.
Example of character displacement.
- Indirect evidence of past competition.
- Allopatric populations of birds on Los Hermanos and Daphine Islands. They have similar beak morphologies and eat similar sized seeds.
- Sympatric species on Santa Maria and San Cristobal . One bird has a shallower, smaller beak and the other has a deeper, larger beak. These adaptions favor eating different sizes of seeds.
Examples of defensive coloration in animals.
- Cryptic Coloration: camouflages predators and/or prey. Canyon tree frog.
- Aposematic Coloration: warning coloration associated with unpalatable, toxic, or dangerous prey. Posion dart frog.
- Batesian Mimicry: deceptive coloration gives a harmless animal. The hawkmouth larva resembles the posionious green parrot snake.
- Mullerian Mimicry: deceptive coloration. The unpalatable species mimic each other. Cuckoo bee and the yellow jacket.
Example of Keystone Predator.
- Rocky intertidal communities of western North America. The sea star is uncommon but preys on mussels.
- The mussels are a dominant species and a strong competitor for Robert Paine removed the sea star in some areas.
- The mussels monopolized the rock face and eliminated most other invertebrates and algae.
- The sea star is a keystone species.
Example of ecosytem engineers.
- Beavers fell trees, building dams, and creating ponds.
- Beavers can transform large areas of forest into flooded wetleands.
Eample of recovery after a large-scale disturbance.
- After fire, the burn left a patchy landscape.
- One year after the fire, the community has begun to recover and there are herbaceous plantscover the ground that are different from those in the former forest.
- Glacial retreat and then primary succession occered at Glacier Bay, Alaska.
- 1. pioneer stage: fireweed dominant
- 2. dryas stage: dryas dominates
- 3. alder stage: form dense thickets
- 4. Spruce stage: Spruce-hemlock forest.
- biological magnifaction of PCBS in the Great Lake food web.
- phytoplankton, zooplankton, smelt, lake trout, Herring gull eggs.
- Amount of PCBS increase as you move up the food web.
Example of Carbon Dioxide effect of global temperatures.
- Mauna Loa, Hawaii.
- The carbon dioxide concentration has increased steadily from 1958 to current.
- There is a warming trend in the global temperatures.
How free chlorine in the atmosphere destroys ozone.
- Chlorine from CFCs interact with ozone and form a chlorine monoxide and oxygen.
- The chlorine monoxide molecules react and form chlorine peroxide.
- The sunlight causes the chlorine peroxide to break down oxygen and free chlorine atoms.
Dead zone example.
- The dead zone arises from nitrogen pollution in Mississippi.
- There are high concentration of phytoplankton and river sediment in the Gulf of Mexico.
- When phytoplankton die, their decomposition creates the dead zone.
Example of introduced species.
- Brown Tree snake was introduced into Guam in cargo. Some species have become extinct bc of the brown tree snake.
- Kudzu was introduced in South Carolina. Once introduced to control erosion. Kudzu has taken over some landscapes.
Example of Habitat Fragmentation.
- foothills of Los Angeles.
- The development in valleys may confine organisms that inhabit the narrow strips of the hillside.
Examples of edges between ecosystems.
- Natural edges: Grasslands give way to forest ecosystems in Yellowstone National Park.
- Human-made edges: pronouced edges, roads, surround clear-cuts in a heavily logged rain forest in Malaysia.
Examples of biotic boundries.
- Boundries for grizzly bears in Yellostone and Grand Tenton National Parks.
- The biotic boundries surround that areas needed to support a minimum viable population of 50 and 500 bears.
Example of bioremdiation.
- bioremdiation of ground water that is contaminated with uranium at Oak Ridge National Labratory.
- They are using uranium-reducing bacteria.
Example of restoration
- Restored a gravel and clay mine in New Jersey
- They reesablished a gentle slope, and then spreading topsoil.
- biological restoration.
Kissimmee River, FL
- The river was converted from a meandering river to a 90-km canal which threatening many fish wetland bird populations.
- Restoration: drain canal and reestablish 24km of the meandering river.
Truckee River, Nevada
- Damming and water diversions during 20th century reduced the flow and inturn caused a reduction of the riparian forests.
- Ecologists worked with water mangers to make sure that sufficient water would be released.
- Lead to recovery of cottonwood-willow riparian forest.
Rhine River Europe
- Centuries of dedging and channeling for navigation have straightened the onces meandering Rhine River and disconnected it from its floodplain and associated wetlands.
- Countries along the Rhine are reconnecting the river to side channels.
- The side channels increase the diversity of habitats avaible to aquatic biota, improve water quality, and provide flood protection.
- Seeweed and seagrass beds are important nursery grounds for a wide variety of fish and shellfish.
- Reduced by development.
- The beds are being restored in the costal areas of Japan.
- Constructing suitable seafloor habitat, transplanting from natural beds using artficial substrates and hand seeding.
Succulent Karoo, South Africa
- In aird regions are overgrazed and damaged by livestock.
- Private landowners and government agencies in South Africa are restoring this land.
- They are revegitating the land and more resource managment.
- It becomes more diverse.
Mangatautari, New Zealand
- Weasels, rats, pigs and other introduced species are a threat to New Zealand's native plants and animals.
- Exclude all exotic animals from the forest preserve.
- They use a specialized fence around the reserve.
Imprinting on baby geese.
When a baby goslin is hatched it will follow around what ever it is introduced to within the first 48 hours.
populationg size impact
- populations from different species
- interspecfic relationships
major land forms
places where ecosystems join
- more recently formed
- higher levels of dissolved oxygen
- lower level of other dissolved nutrients
- older lakes
- low levels of dissolved oxygen
- higher levels of dissolved nutrients and minerals due to erosin and animals
- water is cloudy and has a shallow photic zone.
Example of proximate cause
- dulap display: extended brightly colored silky anils.
- recognize own species by color pattern and attract mates.
- contracts muscle and extends dulap
example of ultimate cause.
- Fiddler crabs have one giant claw to warn off and attract mates. its a defense and display mechanism and secondary sex characteristics.They communicate with a visual signal
- Fruit flies have courtship rituals: orienting, tapping, and singing.
- Founder of the enviornmental movement
- Silent Spring
- She applied ecological principals.
- Enviornmentalism is important to our health and ecological health
Examples of biotic and abiotic factors
- Red Kangaroos.
- Abiotic and biotic factors limit distribution in Australia.
- The air circulation near the water is an example of an abiotic factor.
- Cool offshore breeze during the day and vice versa
- Shapes coastal climates and what types of plants and animals can survive near the coast vs inland
example of predation
- predator: lynx
- prey: hares
- When there is and increase in prey there is an increase in predator fitness because there are more prey to feed on