Chapter 25

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Anonymous
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84476
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Chapter 25
Updated:
2011-05-08 03:03:53
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Digestive system
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Chapter 25
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  1. Functions
    • Ingestion
    • Mechanical processing
    • Chemical digestion
    • Absorption
    • Excretion
    • Defecation
  2. Accessory organs of digestive system
    teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, pancreas
  3. Histological organization of digestive tract
    • 1. Mucosa
    • 2. Submucosa
    • 3. Muscularis externa
    • 4. Serosa
  4. Mucosa
    Mucosa = mucous membrane- mucosal epithelium : simple or stratified; mucosa folds = plicae- Lamina propria: loose aerolar C.T- muscularis mucosae
  5. Submucosa
    Submucosa - dense irregular C.T- exocrine glands - Brunner's glands = mucous; Peyer's patches= lymphoid- parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation - submucosal plexus
  6. Muscularis externa
    • smooth muscle in circular and longitudinal layers
    • myenteric nerve plexus - sympathetic and parasympathetic
    • forms sphincters and valves
  7. Serosa
    • Serous membrane
    • none in oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, rectum
    • have adventitia - collagen fibers attach digestive tract to adjacent structures
  8. notes
    • mucosa ends with muscularis mucosa
    • muscularis externa - involuntary smooth muscle with gap junctions
  9. Peristalsis
    alternate waves of contraction and relaxation of muscles in the organ walls; propels materials along the tract
  10. Segmentation
    • no net movement
    • fragment the materials in tract - smooth muscles - no sarcomeres, powerful gap junctions of sheet and layers
  11. serosa
    visceral peritoneum
  12. greater omentum
    pouch of fat, lymph nodes
  13. The Oral cavity
    • Analysis, mechanical processing, lubrication, limited digestion - CHO
    • lined by stratified squamous epithelium
  14. tongue
    • manipulate food
    • secretions aid in fat digestion (lipase)
  15. Salivary glands
    • lubricates, moistens, dissolves chemicals, flushes mouth
    • parotid - salivary amylase (CHO breakdown)
    • sublingual - mucus (lubricates)
    • submandibular (mixed)

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