_______________has to do with the amount of water we are retaining in the system or body.
________________is the most significant substance
regulating water distribution in the body.
Long term thirst quenching requires us to decrease the
osmolarity of the blood, because you have __________________that monitor osmolarity of the blood and they will stop at the first response and they will promote capillary filtration pushing more water out of capillaries and into interstitial fluid.
_________________________can override the affects of sodium. It is released in response to true dehydration.
Antidiuretics hormone (ADH)
It would be best to run out of food before________________.
We excrete 5 grams of ____________________a day without exercise.
______________________ is the most abundant in the
We need _____________for bone strengthening, muscle contraction and muscle relaxation.
_______________________could also be caused by deficiency in vitamin d, pregnancy, lactation.
_____________________are abundant in the intracellular fluid.
Too much CO2 is referred to as _________________.
Too much hydrogen ions or CO2 is going to signal ____________________to increase your ventilation.
Renal control is the primary thing going on with _________________control.
_____________________might be caused from not enough calcium in the diet.
_____________________ generally follows sodium and potassium ions but mostly sodium.
___________________is too little sodium in the blood.
High blood pressure inhibits __________________and
We can only survive a few days without________________________.
Too much potassium is referred to as____________________________.
Too much sodium floating in the blood is called ___________________which can be caused by intravenous saline.
Vets use _______________________to euthanize animals.
___________________could occur through heavy
perspiration, vomiting or diarrhea. This causes less excitability causing heart irregularities, loss in muscle tone, and muscle weakness.
Too much calcium would be_____________________. This would be cause from a malfunction in the parathyroid (would be hyper) or the thyroid (which would be hypo) Symptoms would be muscle weakness, diminished reflexes, and cardiac arthmia.
_________________ is also secreted thru the kidneys by urea.
The digestive buffer system HCL + Na + HCO3 -----à H2 CO3 + NaCl is a buffer system. Food goes down and meets hydrochloric acid it is then buffered with ____________________and _________________________.
bicarbonate ions, sodium ions
Blood contains a considerable amount of ___________________that don’t filter into the interstitial fluid. They are continually circulating in the
The most abundant solutes particles in the body would be ________________and ______________because they will drive water back and forth between membranes.
They can replace lost water and electrolytes that would
have normally been urinated out.
Water and electrolytes will be returned to
________________________during dehydration mode.
Antidiuretics hormone (ADH) causes collecting ducts of the kidneys to product more______________________________. These are canals for water to defuse out of the ducts into the renal medulla and can get back into the capillaries. They go out of the ducts and into the adrenal medulla.
True _____________________is the body is eliminating more significantly more water than sodium.
________________________________________ mechanism that drives things that happen in the cell and across the cell membrane, including the mitochondria.
Sodium potassium pump
It is possible to crave sugar when we are ________________.
People with ____________________________will actually lose up to 6X as much sodium per day (up to 30 grams).
high blood pressure
Hyponatrema is too little sodium in the blood. This might be more common in athletes or with excessive ______________replacing it with____________________.
Potassium is the most abundant in the intracellular
fluid. It is going to be the greatest factor in _________________________and____________________________.
intracellular osmolarity, cell volume
_______________________ of potassium is the most
Potassium is controlled by___________________________.
Too much potassium is referred to as Hyperkalemia. This can also be cause from old blood. The potassium will leak out of the old red blood cells. It will lower the threshold of muscle firing and could cause___________________________.
Vets use potassium to euthanize animals. Some states use it for_________________________.
Chloride ion generally follows sodium and potassium ions but mostly sodium. It will affect the ____________of the extracellular fluid.
______________________is too much chloride ions in
system. It can be caused by a dietary excess.
We need calcium for bone strengthening, muscle contraction and muscle relaxation. It also activates_________________________. It is involved with_______________________.
growth transmitters, blood clotting
Too much calcium would be hypercalcimea. This would be cause from a malfunction in the ___________________(would be hyper) or the ________________(which would be hypo) Symptoms would be muscle weakness, diminished reflexes, and cardiac arthmia.
Hypocalcaemia might be caused from not enough calcium in the diet. Same glands would be malfunctioning; parathyroid (would be____________) and thyroid (would be_________________).
________________balance in the body – body has to
maintain pH of 7.35.
Phosphates are abundant in the intracellular fluid. These are used in________________________, and energy production (_____________).
phospholipid bilayer, ATP
______________________ could also be caused by deficiency in vitamin d, pregnancy, lactation. Symptoms would be muscle cramping, or muscles going into tetnea (continuous cramp), can cause death.
Renal control is the primary thing going on with respiratory control. Too ______________would
secrete hydrogen ions to eliminate acid. Too ______________the kidneys will secrete bicarbonate ion.
There is a ________________________system that counts for 70% of all the buffering that takes place.
Hydration has to do with the amount of water we are
retaining in the system or body. A young male would be around _______________________of_________________________. 55 would be low for young male and 70 would be more ideal.
55 – 70%, body weight
Hydration in a _________________runs lower than males at approximately 50-60% of the body weight.
Hydration In the _____________or _________________individuals they run about 45%
_______________________is the most abundant in the
To prevent dehydration we have our_________________________.
Short term solutions to satisfy thirst or ways of keeping mouth moist: chewing gum, sticking a rock in your mouth, or _____________________of the stomach.
Long term thirst quenching takes about ____________minutes.
When hiking and get thirst you are running about a _______________low.
It is better to drink on a __________________________.
The kidneys can replace lost water and electrolytes that would have normally been urinated out. This is controlled by the ___________________of________________. Water and electrolytes will be returned to extracellular fluid during dehydration mode.
True dehydration is the body is eliminating more significantly more water than sodium which will ultimately cause ______________in blood volume and the sodium concentration in the blood will___________________.
We can experience true dehydration from not drinking
enough water, or not replacing__________________.
Acid Base balance in the body – body has to maintain pH of_______________________.
Too much calcium would be hypercalcimea. This would be cause from a malfunction in the parathyroid (would be______________) or the thyroid (which would be________________).
True dehydration is the body is eliminating more significantly more water than sodium which will ultimately cause decrease in blood volume and the sodium concentration in the blood will increase. The increase __________________is going to stimulate the posterior pituitary to release ADH.