April25 Study Test A&P2

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harstanner
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84489
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April25 Study Test A&P2
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2011-05-08 05:12:13
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P2 April Study Test
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April 25 Study Test A&P2
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  1. _______________has to do with the amount of water we are retaining in the system or body.
    Hydration
  2. ________________is the most significant substance
    regulating water distribution in the body.
    Sodium
  3. Long term thirst quenching requires us to decrease the
    osmolarity of the blood, because you have __________________that monitor osmolarity of the blood and they will stop at the first response and they will promote capillary filtration pushing more water out of capillaries and into interstitial fluid.
    Osmoreceptors
  4. _________________________can override the affects of sodium. It is released in response to true dehydration.
    Antidiuretics hormone (ADH)
  5. It would be best to run out of food before________________.
    Water
  6. We excrete 5 grams of ____________________a day without exercise.
    Sodium
  7. ______________________ is the most abundant in the
    intracellular fluid.
    Potassium
  8. We need _____________for bone strengthening, muscle contraction and muscle relaxation.
    Calcium
  9. _______________________could also be caused by deficiency in vitamin d, pregnancy, lactation.
    Hyperthyroidism
  10. _____________________are abundant in the intracellular fluid.
    Phosphates
  11. Too much CO2 is referred to as _________________.
    hypercapina
  12. Too much hydrogen ions or CO2 is going to signal ____________________to increase your ventilation.
    chemo receptors
  13. Renal control is the primary thing going on with _________________control.
    respiratory
  14. _____________________might be caused from not enough calcium in the diet.
    Hypocalcaemia
  15. _____________________ generally follows sodium and potassium ions but mostly sodium.
    Chloride ion
  16. ___________________is too little sodium in the blood.
    Hyponatrema
  17. High blood pressure inhibits __________________and
    _______________reabsorption.
    Aldosterone, sodium
  18. We can only survive a few days without________________________.
    Water
  19. Too much potassium is referred to as____________________________.
    Hyperkalemia
  20. Too much sodium floating in the blood is called ___________________which can be caused by intravenous saline.
    Hypernatrimea
  21. Vets use _______________________to euthanize animals.
    Potassium
  22. ___________________could occur through heavy
    perspiration, vomiting or diarrhea. This causes less excitability causing heart irregularities, loss in muscle tone, and muscle weakness.
    Hypokalemia
  23. Too much calcium would be_____________________. This would be cause from a malfunction in the parathyroid (would be hyper) or the thyroid (which would be hypo) Symptoms would be muscle weakness, diminished reflexes, and cardiac arthmia.
    Hypercalcimea
  24. _________________ is also secreted thru the kidneys by urea.
    CO2
  25. The digestive buffer system HCL + Na + HCO3 -----à H2 CO3 + NaCl is a buffer system. Food goes down and meets hydrochloric acid it is then buffered with ____________________and _________________________.
    bicarbonate ions, sodium ions
  26. Blood contains a considerable amount of ___________________that don’t filter into the interstitial fluid. They are continually circulating in the
    blood.
    protein ions
  27. The most abundant solutes particles in the body would be ________________and ______________because they will drive water back and forth between membranes.
    sodium, potassium
  28. They can replace lost water and electrolytes that would
    have normally been urinated out.
    Kidneys
  29. Water and electrolytes will be returned to
    ________________________during dehydration mode.
    extracellular fluid
  30. Antidiuretics hormone (ADH) causes collecting ducts of the kidneys to product more______________________________. These are canals for water to defuse out of the ducts into the renal medulla and can get back into the capillaries. They go out of the ducts and into the adrenal medulla.
    aqua phornes
  31. True _____________________is the body is eliminating more significantly more water than sodium.
    Dehydration
  32. ________________________________________ mechanism that drives things that happen in the cell and across the cell membrane, including the mitochondria.
    Sodium potassium pump
  33. It is possible to crave sugar when we are ________________.
    dehydrated
  34. People with ____________________________will actually lose up to 6X as much sodium per day (up to 30 grams).
    high blood pressure
  35. Hyponatrema is too little sodium in the blood. This might be more common in athletes or with excessive ______________replacing it with____________________.
    urine, water
  36. Potassium is the most abundant in the intracellular
    fluid. It is going to be the greatest factor in _________________________and____________________________.
    intracellular osmolarity, cell volume
  37. _______________________ of potassium is the most
    dangerous.
    Imbalance
  38. Potassium is controlled by___________________________.
    Aldosterone
  39. Too much potassium is referred to as Hyperkalemia. This can also be cause from old blood. The potassium will leak out of the old red blood cells. It will lower the threshold of muscle firing and could cause___________________________.
    cardiac arrest
  40. Vets use potassium to euthanize animals. Some states use it for_________________________.
    lethal injections
  41. Chloride ion generally follows sodium and potassium ions but mostly sodium. It will affect the ____________of the extracellular fluid.
    pH
  42. ______________________is too much chloride ions in
    system. It can be caused by a dietary excess.
    Hyperchlormia
  43. We need calcium for bone strengthening, muscle contraction and muscle relaxation. It also activates_________________________. It is involved with_______________________.
    growth transmitters, blood clotting
  44. Too much calcium would be hypercalcimea. This would be cause from a malfunction in the ___________________(would be hyper) or the ________________(which would be hypo) Symptoms would be muscle weakness, diminished reflexes, and cardiac arthmia.
    parathyroid, thyroid
  45. Hypocalcaemia might be caused from not enough calcium in the diet. Same glands would be malfunctioning; parathyroid (would be____________) and thyroid (would be_________________).
    hypo, hyper
  46. ________________balance in the body – body has to
    maintain pH of 7.35.
    Acid Base
  47. Phosphates are abundant in the intracellular fluid. These are used in________________________, and energy production (_____________).
    phospholipid bilayer, ATP
  48. ______________________ could also be caused by deficiency in vitamin d, pregnancy, lactation. Symptoms would be muscle cramping, or muscles going into tetnea (continuous cramp), can cause death.
    Hyperthyroidism
  49. Renal control is the primary thing going on with respiratory control. Too ______________would
    secrete hydrogen ions to eliminate acid. Too ______________the kidneys will secrete bicarbonate ion.
    Acidic, alkaline
  50. There is a ________________________system that counts for 70% of all the buffering that takes place.
    protein buffer
  51. Hydration has to do with the amount of water we are
    retaining in the system or body. A young male would be around _______________________of_________________________. 55 would be low for young male and 70 would be more ideal.
    55 – 70%, body weight
  52. Hydration in a _________________runs lower than males at approximately 50-60% of the body weight.
    Female
  53. Hydration In the _____________or _________________individuals they run about 45%
    Obese, elder
  54. _______________________is the most abundant in the
    extracellular fluid.
    Sodium
  55. To prevent dehydration we have our_________________________.
    thirst mechanism
  56. Short term solutions to satisfy thirst or ways of keeping mouth moist: chewing gum, sticking a rock in your mouth, or _____________________of the stomach.
    distention
  57. Long term thirst quenching takes about ____________minutes.
    30
  58. When hiking and get thirst you are running about a _______________low.
    Quart
  59. It is better to drink on a __________________________.
    regular basis
  60. The kidneys can replace lost water and electrolytes that would have normally been urinated out. This is controlled by the ___________________of________________. Water and electrolytes will be returned to extracellular fluid during dehydration mode.
    absorption, sodium
  61. True dehydration is the body is eliminating more significantly more water than sodium which will ultimately cause ______________in blood volume and the sodium concentration in the blood will___________________.
    decrease, increase
  62. We can experience true dehydration from not drinking
    enough water, or not replacing__________________.
    electrolytes
  63. Acid Base balance in the body – body has to maintain pH of_______________________.
    7.35
  64. Too much calcium would be hypercalcimea. This would be cause from a malfunction in the parathyroid (would be______________) or the thyroid (which would be________________).
    Hyper, hypo
  65. True dehydration is the body is eliminating more significantly more water than sodium which will ultimately cause decrease in blood volume and the sodium concentration in the blood will increase. The increase __________________is going to stimulate the posterior pituitary to release ADH.
    Osmolarity

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