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What are the functions of the human skeleton?
- It keeps our shape
- It supports our weight
- It protects vital organs such as the brain, lungs, spinal chord, and heart
- It provides a framework for the attatchment of muscles
Are bones alive or dead?
What happens when you place a bone in acid?
It becomes flexible
What happens when you heat up a bone?
It becomes brittle (as the living/organic matter has been removed)
What are bones made up of?
- Living cells
- Calcium phosphate - the hard part
What is a joint?
A place where two or more bones meet
Name the two different types of joints
- Hinge joint
- Ball and Socket joint
Give an example of a hinge joint
Give an example of a Ball and Socket joint
How many planes does a hinge joint allow movement in?
How many planes does a ball and socket joint allow movement in?
Ligaments attach _____ to bone?
Tendons attach _____ to bone?
The ends of bones that meet at joints are covered in...?
What does cartilage do?
It reduces friction between bones and acts as a shock absorber
Synovial joints contain....?
synovial membrane and sac
Muscles act in ________ pairs?
What is energy measured in?
What does the amount of energy we need depend on?
Gender, age, size and occupation
What is the respitory system made up of?
What beings about inspiration and expiration?
- Intercostal muscles
What state are the Rib cage, Intercostal muscles and Diaphram in during inspiration?
- Rib cage is up and out
- Intercostal muscles contact
- Diaphram contract
What state are the Rib cage, Intercostal muscles and Diaphram in during expiration?
- Rib cage is down and in
- Intercostal muscles relax
- Diaphram relax
In breathing oxygen is....?
In breathing carbon dioxide is...?
Where does gas exchange occur?
In the alveoli
Why are the trachea and bronchi held permenantly open by incomplete rings of cartilage?
To stop them from collapsing and closing, which will lead to suffocation
Alveoli have a _______ surface area and are ______ and _______ walled?
What are the tiny hairs that line the trachea and bronchi called?
What do the cilia do?
Rythmic beating of the cilia sweeps mucus containing dust and germs upwards to the larynx where it passes into the oesophagus
Blood arriving in the lungs is said to be....?
Blood leaving the lungs is said to be....?
Name the four chambers of the heart
- Right Atrium
- Left Atrium
- Right Ventricle Left Ventricle
What does the right side of the heart do?
It pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
What does the left side of the heart do?
It pumps oxygenated blood all over the body
Why does the left side of the heart have a thicker muscular wall?
As it has to pump blood all around the body
What is the function of valves
They control the direction of bloodflow
Describe an artery
- Carries blood away from the heart
- Thick muscular wall
- Able to withstand high pressure
- Carries oxygenated blood (except for pulmonary artery)
- No valves present
Describe a vein
- Carries blood back to the heart
- Thinner muscular wall
- Able to withstand low pressure
- Carries deoxygenated blood (except for pulmonary vein)
- Vavles present
What is the function of the coronary artery?
It supplies the muscular wall of the heart with oxygenated blood
What is the main artery leaving the heart called?
What are the components of blood?
- Red blood cells
- White blood cells
What is plasma?
- The liquid part of the blood
- It carries carbon dioxide, food, waste substances (like urea) and hormones around the body
What are white blood cells?
- Cells that fight infection
- Some produce anti-bodies
What are red blood cells?
- They are cells with a biconcave shape (which offers maximum surface area for oxygen uptake) and no nucleus.
- They contain haemoglobin
- They are made in your boen marrow
What is the function of haemoglobin?
In the presence of a high concentration of oxygen, haemoglobin readily combine with the oxygen to form oxy-haemoglobin. When the surrounding concentration of oxygen is low, oxy-haemoglobin readily releases the oxygen again
What are the main parts of the eye and their functions?
- Cornea - allows light to enter the eye
- pupil - allows light to eneter the eye
- iris - alters diameter of pupil and controls amount of light enetering the eye
- lens - focuses light onto the retina
- retina - light is converted to nerve impulses
- optic nerve - carries nerve impulses from retina to brain
- fovea - point of most accurate vision
The brain uses images from both eyes to give us a 3D picture, this is called...?
What are the main parts of the ear and their functions?
- auditory canal - directs sound waves on to eardrum
- eardrum - is set vibrating by soudn waves which it passes on to the middle ear bones
- middle ear bones (hammer, stirrup and anvil) - amplify and transmit sound vibrations from eardrum to oval window
- oval window - transmits sound vibrations into liquid filled inner ear
- cochlea - stimuated 'hairs' convert soun vibrations in the liquid to nerve impulses
- auditory nerve - carries nerve impulses from cochlea to brain
- semi-circular canals - messages sent to part of brain which controls muscular activity essential for balance
The semi-circular canals help us keep our...?
What is the central nervous system made up of?
The body has receptors and effectors which respond to....?
Messages are sent through the nervous system as....?
What is the flow of information through the nervous system?
- Sensory neurones recieve messages
- Relay neurones then connect these to motor neurones
What is a reflex action and what do they do?
- A rapid, automatic response to a stimulus
- They protect the body
What are the main parts of the brain and their functions?
- cerebrum - largest part of the brain, each region has a specific function
- cerebellum - controls balance and muscular co-ordination
- medulla - controls the rate of breathing and heart beat
What causes muscle fatigue?
A lack of oxygen in the muscle cells and the build up of lactic acid
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
glucose ------> lactic acid + a little energy
What is 'oxygen debt'?
The time it takes for oxygen, which was used to remove excess lactic acid, to be replaced