10-Dementia

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Author:
carolinc
ID:
84500
Filename:
10-Dementia
Updated:
2011-05-08 22:31:24
Tags:
atrophy
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Description:
what causes dementia
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  1. What are some cognitive deficits of Alzheimers disease?
    • memory loss (anterograde memory)
    • language loss
    • visuospatial disturbance
  2. What are some behavior changes of Alzheimers disease?
    • no early personality changes
    • unawareness (denial)
    • psychosis (late)
  3. Where would alzheimers damage be located?
    • hippocampus
    • etorhinal cortex
  4. Where would signs of Alzheimers be located on an FDG scan?
    • Hippocampus
    • Etorhinal cortex
    • ----due to hypometabolism
  5. What would a PIB scan show if a patient has alzhimers?
    Increase in amyloid
  6. What are some cognitive deficits of FTD?
    • Dysfxn in exec. processes
    • good memory, language, spatial skills
  7. What are some behavioral changes in FTD?
    • personality changes
    • poor judgement, disinhibition
    • socially inapprop.
    • frontal release signs
  8. Where would FTD damage be located?
    Frontal and Anterior Temporal cortex
  9. On an FDG scan, what would you see if a patient has FTD?
    frontal HYPO-metabolism (shrinkage)
  10. What would you see on a PIB scan for someone with FTD?
    nothing
  11. What are the 3 causes of Dementia?
    • Neurodegenerative disorder (AD & FTD)
    • Vascular (multi-infarct)- Lacunar strokes
    • B12 deficiency (reversible, give vitamins)
  12. What is the pathology of Alzheimers or the 2 hallmarks of them?
    • Neurofibrillary tangles
    • Amyloid plaques
  13. How can a Alzheimers patient maintain cognition?
    • through a cognitive reserve:
    • cognitive and social interaction (it's a muscle, so work it out)
  14. Which dementia is more common, AD or FTD?
    Alzheimers--found primarily in older individuals
  15. What is the pathology of FTD?
    Neurofribillary tangles (TAU)
  16. What are some causes of demetia?
    • Cerebral vascular disease
    • Causal genes
    • Risk Genes
    • Head trauma (over time--> dementia)
  17. What do the causes of dementia lead to?
    devrese in neural, synapse, and neurotransmitter #
  18. What are some ways to prevent/help with dementia?
    • estrogen replacement
    • education-->increase in memory
  19. What are a couple ways to treat AD?
    • Cholinergic replacement (helps with cell membrane formation)
    • anti-amyloid agents
  20. Are there any treatments for FTD?
    no
  21. What are some reversible causes of dementia?
    • depression (pseudodementia)
    • B12/folate deficiency (can't absorb b12, but replace it)
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Neurosyphilis
  22. What are soem diseases that can lead to dementia?
    • prion disease
    • bovine spongiform encephalophaty
    • Kuru (cannibalism)
    • Creutzfelt-Jakob disease
  23. What part of the brain degenerates which leads to loss of acetylcholine?
    basal ganglia
  24. Which secretase is the bad one whichleads to the buildup of amyloid plaque?
    Beta
  25. In AD, which lobe is inactive in an FDG/PET glucose scan?
    Temporo-Parietal..there are patches inteh brain which show a decrese in glucose utilization
  26. Cognitive reserve refers to

    A. The ability of fronto-temporal patients to come up with creative excuses for their social problems
    B. The relative resilience that those with more mental abilities show to neuropathology
    C. The ability to prevent brain damage through cognition
    D. The place where memories are stored
    B. The relative resilience that those with more mental abilities show to neuropathology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Which of the following is the number 1 type of dementia in low socio-economic status?
    A. Alzheimer’sdisease
    B. Vascular(multi-­infarct)dementia
    C. B-­‐12deficiency
    D. Parkinson’sdisease
    B. Vascular(multi-­infarct)dementia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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