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War on Drugs:
40 years. named the war with "no rules, No boundaries, no end.
Federal law for serving Time
MUST serve 87% of your sentence.
Amount/Age of people using illicit drugs in USA 12+.
9.3 million or 3.7% and ages 16-25 are most likey
Social norms identify use of acohol and drugs
Emile Durkheim said that:
Under periods of anomie (absence of common social norms) People are more likely to pursue self destructive behaviors. People respond to stress through self medication.
Conflict theorist believe:
Power groups decide which drugs are illegal
Certain social groups are singled out
Black women are targeted the most by drug laws
There has been an increase in recognition of the importance of gender specific treatment models
Women are more likely to get depressed and take their anger out on themselve rather that others.
Drug abuse is learned through others
Certain individuals and groups are more likely to be labelled as drug users than others.
What are the four signs of alcohol abuse?
- Physical Dependence
- Loss of control
What ethnic groups are most likely to drink? ADULTS
Native Americans> Alaskan Natives> Hawwiian Natives> the rest of the USA
Asians drink the least but are part of a growing category.
Amoung Adolecence, the top drinkers go as followed:
Hispanic>whites> asians>african americans.
The rate of fatal crashes from 16- 20 is _______ times the rate of those 21+
The decline in acohol abuse with the increase in age is called:
Which group is more likely to do so?
White (increase for blacks)
Research has attributed acoholism among minorities to what three sources of stress?
Acculturative Stress- leaving homeland and adapting to new place
Socioeconomic stress- Feel disempowered because of social and economc inequalities in society
Minority Stress- tension due to racism
Women are _____ likely to get depressed
Tend to take their anger out on _______
Factor that keep women from drinking
- traditionally women are supposed to drink less
- If thy dont work, they dont have as much access
- Wife and mothers are discouraged from drinking
Research shows that drinking ______ during adolescence, _______ at young adulthood, and then ________ in adulthood.
People who began drinking at 15 are _____ more likely to develop dependency
If current smoking patterns continue, by 2010 __________ people worldwide will die of diseases caused by cigarette smoking.
Cigarette smoking is the most prevalent form of ______ addiction.
Nicotine is both a ______ and a ________
Each cigarette contains about _____ mg of Nicotine and about ______ mg of that is smoked.
- stimulant and sedative
In the united States the Prevalence of smoking is highest amoung _______ (41.8%), followed by _______ (30.7%), _________(26.8%), ________(22.7%) and _______(15.4%)
- Native Americans/Alaska Natives
- Asian/ Pacific Islanders
What percent of youths 12-17 are current smokers?
Smoking has been linked to what disease?
- Lung Cancer
- chronic Bronchitis
- cancer of the mouth, stomach, kidney, bladder, cervix, pancreas, and larynx
Overall, the death rates from cancer are ____ as high among smokers
It is estimated that _________ deaths per year are attributed to cig smoking in the USA.
Nonsmokers exposed to smoke have a _______ increased risk of heart disease and a _______ increased risk of Lung Cancer.
More than _______ adults die annually from second hand smoke in Europe
The use of smokeless tobacco occurs at a significantly ______ age than cig smoking.
can be called_____, ______, or ______
The average cheekful for 30 mins = about ____ cigs of nicotine
Most smokeless tobacco users are
white, male and from rural areas
Marijuana has been estimated to be used (currently) by ______ people or ____% of the world's Population
What is the major active ingrediant in POT?
What else is the chemical used for?
- Treat nausea in chemotherapy and to stimulate appetite in AIDS patients.
Among Americans 12+ approximately ____ % (more than ____ million) are estimates to have tried pot at least once.
____% of highschoolers
_____% of college students have tried pot
What are the acute and chronic side effects of smoking pot?
- Acute : impaired short term memory, judgement, balance and coordination
- Chronic: cough bronchitis, lung disease and cancer of all parts of the respritory tract.
Pot has ___ to ___ more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than tobacco smoke.
How can Meth be taken?
What are the various names of Meth?
What was Meth orgininally used for?
- Meth can be injected, snorted, smoked or ingested.
- Speed, Crystal, Crank, Go, Ice.
- Treating asthma and narcolepsy
More the _____ people have tried Meth in their lifetime.
What are the side effects of Meth?
- Violent behavior, anxiety, confusion, delusions and insomnia.
- Brain Damage, stroke and epilepsy.
Drug and crime officials say between 2004 and 2007 that the number of small lab seizures _____ and the domestic production ______ in 2008.
What is Cocaine made from?
How can it be taken?
Because crack is smoked, the user experiences a high in __________
- coca bush
- snorted smoked injected
- less than ten seconds
IN the US, ____ americans are current users in 2005.
Age _______ has the highest rate of use
Men are ______ likely to use than women
- 2.4 million
- 18-25 year olds
Babies who are born to mothers who have smoked crack are mostly:
premature, lightweights, and shorter in length
More than _____ of the inmates in prison were found to be dependent.
____% dependent on drugs
____% dependent on alcohol
_____% of females were dependent
_____% of males were dependent
Notice that more females are adicted.
_______ of convicted inmates were under the influence at the time of their offense.
Studies show that alcohol to be associated with child abuse as both a ____ and ______.
Cause and Consequence: Women who were abused are more likely to drink when they grow up.
About ____ of fulltime workers used illicit drugs within the past month.
Studies found that problem drinking naf drug use was linked to _____ and ______ of work
- quality and organization
Workers with alcohol problems were more likely to have what kind of jobs?
By occupation, the heaviest drinkers work in:
repetitive or dangerous jobs, were more likely to drink with coworkers.
food preperation, waiters, bartenders, construction, service occpations and transportation.
The highest prevalence of binge drinking was for ages ________, followed by _______.
From 1995 to 2003, there was______ in the amount of boy engaging in binge drinking, and there was _____ in the amount of girls engaged.
- no increase
- A sharp increase
By the time they reach eighth grade, ____% say they have had at least one drink and ___% have gotten drunk
Who is most likely to binge drink?
Men, under 24, students, GREEK, white, atheletes.
It is concluded that ____ college students between 18 nad 24 die annually from alcohol unintentional injuries and ______ are injured.
_____ students are assulted by another student that has been drinking.
- half a million
What are the other names of MDMA?
IN 2005 it was reported the _____ americans have used this in pill form.
Ecstasy, Adam, X, XTC, hugs, beans and love drug.
What are the three date rape drugs?
Rohypol, GHB, and ketamine
Who is most likely to take ecstasy?
White students, especially gay
What is the NIDA?
- National Institute on Drug Abuse.
- Was created in 1974 to prevent, treat and research.
- Does 85% of the worlds drug research
What is NIAAA?
- National institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
- Founded under President Nixon in 1970
- Prevent, Treat and rehabilitate
What is the ONDCP?
- Office of National Drug Control Policy
- Formed in 1988
- Meant to reduce availability, the # of users and the amount of young people trying drugs
Arguments for the legalization of Drugs include:
- Lead to a reduction of Drug related crimes
- Punishment is not helping rehibilitate
- Drug offenses are vicitmless crimes
- It would improve standards of drugs helping improve the health risk.
What is the difference between legalization and decriminalization?
Decriminalization= keeping criminal penalties but reducing the severity of removing some portions.
Legalization suggest removing drugs from the control of the law completely.
What does the harm reduction approach include?
treatement, rehabilitation and education