flashcards pathophysiology CH 1.txt
Card Set Information
flashcards pathophysiology CH 1.txt
medical coding pathophysiology chapter
Pathophysiology Unit 1 Chap 1
A pathological condition of the body in response to an alteration in the normal body harmony
the condition of a person who is experiencing a disease
known by its medical classification and distinguishing features.
a condition or situation that may make a person more at risk or susceptible to disease.
name some predisposing factors
a trait inherited from a parent puts an individual at risk for certain diseases
a risk factor related to the life cycle
a predisposing factor when the disease is physiologically based (ie prostate cancer in men or ovarian cancer in women)
"exposure to air, noise, and other environmental pollutanta may predispose individuals to disease"
smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke; sustance abuse; poor nutritional choices; lack of exercise
a basic unit of heredity consisting of a fixed segment of the DNA
observable physical characteristics
determined by a combination of genetic makeup and environmental factors
"color and texture of the hair, shape of the nose, height, etc."
a description of the combination of a person's genes (single or larger traits)
inherited from one's parents
physical traits are an expression of
a pair of genes
identical genes from each parent for a particular trait
both recessive (recessive genes are only homozygous; never heterozygous)
diffent genes from each parent
one gene dominant/ one recessive
recessive genes are never heterozygous
may cause disturbances in body funcitons
occur when the normal sequence of DNA unit is disrupted
causes are largely unknown
genetic diseases are a result of:
monogenic (Mendelian) alterations
Monogenic (Mendelian) Alterations
caused by mutation in a single gene
"pattern of inheritance is determined by whether or not the gene is dominate, recessive or sex-linked"
types of Monogenic Alterations
X- or Sex-linked
only one abnormal gene from a parent is needed for a disease to be inherited
"when one parent has the faulty gene, there is a 50% chance the offspring will have the defect"
Examples of autosomal dominant diseases
Huntington disease (causes degeneration of brain neurons)
Reinoblastoma (rare eye tumor in the retina)
A disorder causing the degeneration fo brain neurons in certain areas of the brain
: uncontrolled movements, emotional disturbances and mental deterioration/ symptons often do not develop until middle age"
: Tetrabenazine (Xenazine); can reduce the jerky, involuntary movements by increasing dopamine"
Rare eye tumor
: usually present at birth; tends to occur in both eyes; can spread to other areas of the body
treatment is varied; partially dependent on the spread of the disease; may need to remove affected eye
must be 2 copies of the abnormal gene in order for the disease or trait to develop
: Cystic fibrosis; Tay-Sachs; Phenylketonuria (PKU); Sickle cell anemia
X- or Sex-Linked Diseases
occur when a single abnormal gene on the X chromosome can cause a disease
only a few known dominant X-linked diseases; vitamin D resistant rickets and Rett Syndrome
resistant to the vitamin D treatment usually given for rickets
deficient amount of mineral in the cartilage growth plates
affects the way the brain develops
most frequently in girls
symptoms similar to autism
Recessive X-linked diseases
occurs when both the gene pairs are abnormal
: Hemophilia; Duchenne muscular dystrophy
"chronic, generalized disease of the glands that release their secretions into the digestive tract, the outer surface of the body or the exocrine glands"
"primarily affects the pancrease, respiratory system and sweat glands"
a rare lipid abnormality in which harmful amounts of fatty substances build up in the brain cells
distinguish by progressive neurological deterioration and a cherry-red spot with a gray border on both retinas
chiefly affects infants of eastern European Jewish (Ashkenazi) ancetry
"results in deafness, blindness and paralysis; recurrent brochopneumonia after age 2; usually death by age 5"
"caused by an inability of metabolize phenylalanine, an essential amino acid"
mental disability results unless a special diet begins within the first few weeks of life
"caused by abnormalities in the number of chromosomes or by changes in the chromosomal structures (ie additions, deletions or translocations)"
Klinefelter syndrome; Turner syndrome; Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome
an add'l X chromosome in males
"male body shape
: elongated, testes are small, mammary glands abnormally large, generally do not produce sperm"
caused by the loss of or an incomlete X chromosome in either the ovum or the sperm
"shortened stature; swollen hands and feet; and coarse, enlarged, prominent ears. Most are infertile."
Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome
an individual has 3 #21 chromosomes instead of the normal two.
more like to occur in children born to parents ages 35-50
"sloping forehead, folds of skin over the inner corners of their eyes; may have heart defects."
generally show some evidence of moderate to severe mental disability
one of the most common birth defects
"result from the interaction of many factors, both hereditary (mutations in multiple genes) and environmental"
Diabetes mellitus; Congenital heart abnomalies
"disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism"
due primarly to insufficient insulin product by the pancreas
Congenital heart anomalies
"includes 6 major anatomic defects that change the flow of blood through the heart, causing circulatory problems."
"the body's immunologic response to tissue damage caused by the invasion of foreign bodies, microorganisms or harmful chemicals."
"mary result from trauma, physical or chemical agents, allergens; disease producting organisms (pathogens)"
inflammation can be acute or chronic
: redness, swelling, pain, heat and maybe loss of function; large number of WBC's at the site."
"Insect bites, mild burns and minor abrasions and cuts"
: increase in the # of lymphocytes, monocytes, and plasma cells"
the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic or disease producing microorganisms in the body
: fungi, rickettsiae, protozoa, viruses, bacteria and parasites"
"yeasts and molds present in the soil, air and water"
fungal diseases are called mycoses
"develop slowly, resistant to treatment, rarely fatal"
"histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, thrush; tinea corporis (ringworm), tinea pedis (athlete's foot)"
bacteria-like organisms that live parasitically inside living cells
"bites from infected lice, fleas, ticks, mosquitoes and mites"
"Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus and trench fever; most like to occur where unsanitary conditions prevail"
"Malaria, amebic dysentery, African sleeping sickness, trichomonas vaginalis"
"smallest microorganisms, visible only thru the use of electron microscopy"
"independent of host cells; difficult to isolate, few respond to drub therapy"
may remain dormant in a host for long periods before becoming active.
"common cold, West Nile virus, measles, mumps, rabies, chicken pox, herpesviruses, poliomyelitis, hepatitis, influenza and certain types of pneumonia and encephalitis"
most are non-pathogenic and useful
bacteria are classified according to their shape
rod shaped bacteria
"tuberculosis, whooping cough, tetanus, typhoid fever and diphtheria"
spiral shaped bacteria
cot shaped bacteria
"gonorrhea, meningitis, tonsillitis, bacterial pneumonia, boil, scarlet fever, sore throats, and certain skin and urinary infections"
host-requiring organisms; include both internal and external parasites
: lice, mites"
: helminthes (pinworms, tapeworms, flukes)"
small thread size; about the size of a staple
often live in the human colon and rectum
long and narrow
"depend on 2 hosts; one human, one animal (ie beef tapeworm, pork tapeworm)"
occurs when raw or contaminated meet or fish is eaten
"small, leaf-shaped, flat, non-segmented "
"occurs when eating uncooked fish, plants or animals from water infested with flukes"
fifth leading cause of death in the US
"skull, nose and jaw fractures"
Penetrating chest injuries (knife & gunshot wounds)
Non-penetrating chest injuries (rib fractures)
"hemorrhages within the liver, spleen, pancreas and kidneys"
"rupture of the stomach, intestine, gall bladder and urinary bladder"
Neck & Spine Trauma
compressions of the vertebral column
fractures to arms & legs
Physical and Chemical Agents
extreme heat & cold
extremes of atmospheric pressure
"bites of insects, spiders and snakes"
syncope (transient loss of consciousness)
insufficient water and salt intake
overexposure to heat
skin is pale and clammy
"rapid weak pulse, shallow breathing"
: rest, cooling, weak salty liquids"
the body's temp-control mechanism malfunctions
sweating ceases and body temp rises
"skin becomes hot, dry and flushed"
: IV therapy, cooling therapy, increased fluid intake"
"temp monitoring, muscle massaging"
mild skin burns -> fatal tissue distruction
"may be via ingestion, inhalation or direct contact"
occupational or accidental exposure
misuse of radiation for diagnostic or treament purposes
: symptomatic & supportive
Extremes of Atmospheric Pressure
rapid change from a high-low or low-high pressure environment
decompression sickness (deep sea divers/ airplane pilots)
rapid escape of blood gases faster than can be diffused thru respiration
: emergency oxygen until person can get to a hyperbaric chamber
"natural (lightning); contrived (carelessness, faulty equip)"
must separate person from electrical source
: begin immediately; could need CPR, hospitalization"
"accidentally ingested, inhaled, injected or absorbed thru the skin"
"improper cooking, storage and canning of food"
drug overdoses or abuse
: first aid measure; identifying & providing correct antidote (if avail)
person generally aspirate fluid or have obstructed airway caused by a spasm of the larynx when gasping under water resulting in hypoxemia (insufficient oxygenation of the arterial blood
"within minutes or days, person may experience respiratory distress"
: critical; hospitalization for oxygenation, airway maintenance, observ of cardiovascular status and watch for further complications"
"Bites of insects, spiders and snakes"
must be treated quickly to prevent venom absorption
: immobilize and transport victim to a hospital for anti venom
lack of oxygen coupled with accumulating carbon dioxide in the blood
"result of near-drowning, hypoventilation, airway obstruction or inhalation of toxic substances"
: may involve removal of obstruction, CPR, oxygenation and intubation"
"classified by extent, depth, person's age and associated illness & injury"
rule of nines; formula for determining the % of the body surface burned
FIRST DEGREE - only the epidermis; ie mild sunburn
"SECOND DEGREE (or partial thickness burns) - epidermis and part of the dermis; skin appears blishetered, red and may be swollen"
"THIRD DEGREE (or full thickness burn) - destroys the epidermis and dermis layers of skin; may also damage underlying bones, muscles and tendons"
skin appears white or charred; sensation is lost as nerve endings are destroyed
: required immediately for 2nd & 3rd degree burns; focus is on maintaining fluid balance and preventing infection
Neoplasia and cancer
Neoplasm - new and abnormal formation of tissue; can be in the form of a tumor or in blood cells
can be benign or malignant
cancer is a genl term for numerous diseases all characterized by the uncontrollable growth of cells
Immune-related factors in disease
natural or genetic immunity
active or acquired immunity