Intensive subsistence farming- Traditional methods
- On lowland, wet rice is grown in flooded paddy fields and on steeper slopes terraces are made
- Best soils are heavy and impermeable and surrounded by Bunds(low mud walls)
- Flood plains floods during the wet season, bringing moisture silt and minerals to soil.
- irigation water is essential to the system in the drier season- Irrigation tanks store water from the wet season and the water is gravity fed to the fields
- Shadufs and water wheels lift water from wells or rivers and a network of irrigation canals deliver the water to the fields
- Very labour intensive and technology levels are low with ox-ploughs still used
- Rice is the main crop in wet season and wheat and vegetable are grown in the dry season
- Fertility is maintained by ploughing stubble back into the field and adding organic material (manure and human waste) to the soil and nitrogen fixing algae enrich the water and soil. Soil eroison is neglible.