intro sterilization

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  1. 4 levels of Sanitization
    • Clean
    • Sanitize
    • Disinfect
    • Sterilize
  2. Levels of Sanitization for Zoos, Kennels, and Wildlife Rehab Centers
    • Clean Daily
    • Sanitize and/or disinfect on a regular schedule
    • Species differences
  3. Clean Daily
    • Some animals are dirtier than others
    • New animals have to be isolated from the rest
  4. Sanitize and/or disinfect on a regular schedule
    Can be weekly, monthly based on need, conditions
  5. Sanitization protocol for research facilities:
    • Labs, teaching
    • Level and protocol will depend on requirements for research
    • Types of species housed
  6. Feral rodents
    Takes 3/4 of an inch for a mouse to get in; their bones are flexible
  7. Insects as pests:
    • Cockroaches
    • Mosquitoes; mainly a problem for zoos and outdoor facilities
  8. Feral cats
    • Toxoplasmosis is main problem, especially for pregnant women
    • Also very harmful to other animals
  9. Toxoplasmosis
    Cats defecate and shed the organisms in their feces; mainly thrive in gardens
  10. Raccoons/Rabies
    • Mainly a problem for zoos because they are outside
    • Since no one is there at night, you would never know if an animal had been bitten and given rabies until it was too late
  11. Mites
    • Very species specific
    • Warbles: only common in rabbits
  12. Fleas
    • Strongest bug out there
    • To truly get rid of them, an exterminator needs to come out 2-3 times. They only hide until they're ready to feed off of an animal again
  13. Cidal
    Means to kill the organism
  14. Static
    • Stops growth
    • Not killing the organism, just keeping it from growing/getting any larger
  15. What makes a good disinfectant:
    • Broad spectrum: kills many things
    • Rapid killing
    • Non-toxic and non-irritating
    • Don't stain
    • Mixes well with water
  16. Sterilization
    Kill or inactivate all live organisms
  17. Five main types of Sterilization
    • Gas
    • Chemical
    • Radiation
    • Heat
    • Filtration
  18. Wet heat
    • Most common
    • Combo. of heat and pressure crushes cells and kills the spores
    • Autoclaved
    • Can use on most materials, including liquids
    • 121C and 22 psi for 30 minutes
  19. Dry heat
    Temps. must be higher to achieve same effects as wet heat autoclave
  20. Tyndallization
    • Classic method
    • Heat to 100C for 15 mins. 1x daily for 3 consecutive days (after the third cycle, it will finally have killed all the cells and spores
    • The original problem was that it killed all the cells but not the spores, so they kept growing
  21. Gas & Vapor
    • Expensive; for materials that are heat labile
    • Types: Ethylene Oxide, Formaldehyde, Ozone
  22. Ethylene oxide
    • Vapor
    • Most common
    • Only good for 24 hours after you mix it. After the 24 hours, it can be used as a good disinfectant for 7 days
  23. Formaldehyde
    • Gas
    • Rarely used; it's very toxic
  24. Ozone
    • Works well for liquids and surfaces
    • Can pump O3 into liquids to kill microbes
  25. Radiation
    • Doesn't go very deep down
    • Types: UV, IR, Ultrasonic
  26. UV radiation
    • Ionizing and non-ionizing
    • Poor penetration for solids, low for liquids
    • Kills surface bacteria and viruses
    • Takes time
  27. IR
    15 mins at 180C
  28. Ultrasonic
    Sound waves disrupt cell membranes in water bath
  29. Filtration
    • For liquid and air
    • Removes bacteria and virus particles
    • Below 0.2 microns is sterile filtered
    • Glass beads
  30. Chemicals
    • Usually disinfectants
    • Require PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)
  31. Types of PPE to use
    • Safety glasses, goggles, splash shields
    • Gloves
    • Gowns, splash aprons
    • Respirators
    • SCBA
  32. Peracetic Acid
    • Very water soluble
    • Good for fruits, grains, and vegetables
    • A little bit stronger than vinegar
  33. Phenols
    Kills all bacteria but will eat at your skin
  34. Alcohols
    • Ether is most common
    • Kills a lot of bacteria; 70-90%
    • Kills some viruses and spores, but not all
  35. QUAT's
    • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
    • Not good for negative bacteria or spores
    • Widely used in private practice vet. hospitals
    • Roccal-P is most common
  36. Halogens
    • Bleach is most common; all you need is household bleach and dilute it 1-10 and it will kill any virus you can think of, including HIV and ebola
    • Doesn't have the same effect on fungus or spores
  37. Iodine/Iodophors
    • Kills gram positive bacteria and some virus and fungi
    • 2 problems: Unstable in light and will stain your clothes/the floor. Can wrap in tin foil to keep light out
  38. Cold Sterilization
    Process in which sterlization is carried out at low temps. with the help of chemicals, radiations, membranes
Card Set:
intro sterilization
2011-05-09 01:23:54
animal science

intro animal mngmt
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