CCT Lab Data

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wdzracer
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8464
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CCT Lab Data
Updated:
2010-02-28 15:57:05
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Lab Results
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CCT Lab Data Interpretation
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  1. What does Hemoglobin do?
    • – The essential oxygen carrier of the blood
    • – A protein used by RBC’s to distribute oxygen to other tissues and cells in the body
  2. What are the Lab value ranges for Hemoglobin?
    • Remember "15" as a normal value
    • Ranges Adult
    • Male 14.0 - 17.4 g/dl
    • Female 12.0 -16.0 g/dl
    • Pediatric 11.0 - 16.0 g/dl
    • Neonate 10.7 – 17.1 g/dl
  3. What does Hematocrit do?
    • – The percentage of red blood cells (RBC) in a volume of whole blood
    • – Refers to the amount of blood that is occupied by RBC’s
    • It’s like chocolate milk: how much of it is chocolate and how much of it is milk
  4. Normal Values for Hematocrit?
    • (42)
    • Ranges Adult
    • Male 39% - 49%
    • Female 34% - 44%
    • Pediatric 32% - 45%
    • Neonate 33% - 55%
  5. Normal Range for WBC count
    • – Adult 4,000 - 10,000 (cell/mcl) **
    • – Pediatric 5,000 - 10,000 (cell/mcl)
  6. Red Blood Cell Count
    • Ranges Adult -5**
    • Male 4.2- 5.6M/ul
    • Female 3.8– 5.1M/ul
    • Pediatric 3.5– 5.0M/ul
    • Neonate 3.3– 5.5M/ul
  7. What are Neutorphils?
    • Main defender of the body against
    • – Infection
    • – Antigens
    • • High levels may indicate an active infection
  8. Normal Neutorphil values
    • • Should account for anywhere between 38% and 80% of the WBC count
    • • Ranges
    • Adult 50% - 75% **
    • Pediatric 30% - 60%
  9. BASOPHILS
    • High levels are found in allergic reactions
    • • Ranges 0% - 1%
  10. EOSINOPHILS
    • Produces the anti-inflammatory protein histamine
    • Ranges 1% - 5%
  11. Lymphocytes
    • Bear the major responsibility for carrying out the activity of the immune system
    • Adult 15% - 40%
  12. Monocytes
    • Responsible for removal of debris
    • • Ranges 2% - 6%
  13. Which Electrolytes are on a Chem 7 Blood screen?
    • • Sodium
    • • Potassium
    • • Chloride
    • • Bicarbonate
    • • Magnesium
    • • Phosphorus
    • • Calcium
  14. What role do Electrolytes have?
    • • Involved in metabolic activities
    • • Essential to the normal function of all cells
    • • Positively and negatively charged molecules
    • – Called ions
    • • Intracellular
    • • Extracellular(Interstitial)
    • • In the bloodstream
    • • In other fluids throughout the body
  15. Which electrolytes are found more abundently inside of Cells?
    • Potassium
    • phosphate
    • magnesium
  16. Which electrolytes are found more abundently Outside of Cells?
    Sodium and chloride
  17. Normal Sodium (Na) levels
    Ranges 135 - 145 mEq/L
  18. What does Sodium do?
    • The major extracellular cation and osmotically active solute
    • • Major functions are
    • –Water balance
    • – Transmission of nerve impulses
    • Deficits lead to neurological changes
  19. How is Sodum eliminated from the body?
    • • Urine
    • • Sweat
    • • Feces
  20. What is Hypernatremia?
    • Increased sodium level caused by
    • • Water excess - Diuetics/ Diarrhea
    • • Sodium loss
    • – Manifestations
    • • Confusions
    • • Seizure
  21. How do you treat Hypernatremia?
    • • Diluting the sodium
    • • Promoting excretion
    • • Consider fluids (D5W)
    • • Consider diuretics
    • – Avoid rapid rehydration with hypotonic fluids
    • • Can cause fluid shifts
  22. What does Potassium (K) do?
    • The principle cation in intracellular fluid
    • Plays a crucial role in the formation of electrical impulses in nerves and muscle
  23. What is considered in abnormally high Potassium levels?
    • High level is above 5.0
    • Broken cells would cause falsely elevate potassium levels
    • – Referred to as hyperkalemia
    • – DKA
    • – Metabolic Acidosis
    • – Uremia
    • – Iatrogenic
    • • Hemolysis
    • It is considered severe over 8.0
    • • Widening of the QRS complex
    • • Bradycardia
    • • Eventually, ventricular standstill
  24. What is in a Potassium Cocktail?
    • Calcium Chloride – Acts as a cardiotonic
    • Sodium Bicarbonate- forces K back into the cells.
    • D50 – Counter acts the effect of Insulin
    • Insulin – Forces potassium back into the cell
    • – Can also be given if the patient is showing signs of
    • impending arrest
  25. What is Hypokalemia?
    Low serum potassium is referred to as hypokalemia and occurs when the serum potassium level falls below 3.5
  26. How is Hypokalemia treated?
    • • Treatment consists of replacing K+ with KCL.
    • • NEVER push IV
  27. Normal Potassium(K) ranges
    Ranges 3.5- 5.0mEq/L
  28. Chloride (Cl)
    • A negatively charged ion found primarily in extracellular fluid.
    • • Ranges 95 - 110mEq/L
  29. Magnesium (Mag)- Causes of deficits
    • Magnesium deficits MUST be corrected before it is possible to correct the potassium deficit.
    • Diuretics, diarrhea and alcoholism are 3 very common causes of magnesium depletion.
    • Over ½ of the total body stores are located in bone and less than 1% is in plasma.
  30. Complications of hypermagnesemia are
    Complete heart block can be seen at serum levels of 7.5 mEq/L and respiratory depression and coma can occur at serum levels of 10mEq/L.
  31. Normal Magnesium range is
    1.3– 2.2 mEq/L
  32. Normal Bicarb levels
    22- 26 mEq/L
  33. What is Anion Gap
    • The equivalence of cations in a solution always balances the equivalents of anions.
    • [Na + K] - [Cl + HCO3] = anion gap
  34. Normal values for the Anion Gap are
    • < 12
    • (>12 is Metabolic Acidosis)
  35. Glucose Range
    60- 120 mg/dl
  36. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
    • • Ranges 10- 20 mg/dl
    • – Elevated
    • • Renal Failure
    • • Dehydration
    • • GI Bleed
    • •Low- Protein deficiency
  37. Creatinine
    • The most important indicator of glomerular filtration rate and is a by/product of normal muscle metabolism.
    • Ranges 0.6mg/dl – 1.2mg/dl
  38. Cardiac Enzymes (CK/MB values)
    • CK Adult Male 96– 140U/L
    • MB Adult Male 0% - 5 %
  39. Troponin
    • • Troponin I < .01
    • • Troponin T < .01
  40. Myoglobin (MYO)
    • intracellular storage site for oxygen.
    • • Ranges Male < 90ng/ml
  41. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)
    • Commonly used to assisst in the diagnosis and monitoring of Congestive Heart Failure
    • Normal value: < 100
  42. Prothrombin Time (PT)
    • • The PT is used to monitor Coumadin therapy.
    • • Ranges 11 sec - 13 sec
  43. Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
    • • The PTT is used to monitor heparin therapy
    • Ranges 30 sec – 45 sec
  44. Platelets (PLT)
    • Ranges 130 – 400 k/mcl
    • Thrombocytopenia is the term used for a low platelet count.

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