intro path

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intro path
2011-05-08 22:54:10
animal science

intro animal mgmt
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  1. Pathology
    • The study of disease
    • The study of the functional and morphological changes of cell, tissues, orgains, fluids of the body during disease
  2. 4 Main reasons for Pathology
    • Provide for an early diagnosis of dzs
    • Allows us to prevent disease
    • We can improve on treatments we already have
    • Reduce the spread of disease
  3. The most central reason for the study of pathology:
    • Sound medicine is based on a thorough understanding of pathology
    • Without pathology, we wouldn't have an understanding of medicine
  4. Foundations of Pathology
    • Anatomy
    • Histology
    • Biochemistry
    • Physiology
  5. Clinical Symptoms
    Feeling that can be described by the patient; Can't happen with animals
  6. Clinical Sign
    Observable, quantifiable result of the disease
  7. Lesion
    • The problem, whatever it may be
    • Can be functional and/or morphological
    • W/e it is, it's an abnormality
  8. Pathogenesis
    • The "how" of the lesion
    • How the process started
  9. Etiology
    The cause of the lesion
  10. Diagnosis
    • Can be morphological, definitive, and/or etiological
    • Hopefully is definitive
  11. Prognosis
    • An interpretation of the probable consequences of the disease
    • Dependant on many variables; age, sex, strain, current state, etc.
  12. 4 Aspects of the disease process:
    • Disease cause: etiology and lesion
    • Pathogenesis: process that led to the lesion
    • Morphological change: what can we observe/see that has changed
    • Functional consequences: What we observed clinically
  13. 3 ways the cells handle stress:
    • Adapt/Adjust/Change/Grow to handle the stress
    • Suffer Reversible Injury and then adapt
    • Suffer Irreversible Injury and Die
  14. Hypertrophy
    Increase in cell mass
  15. Atrophy
    Decrease in cell mass
  16. "Super Seven" of Cell death
    • Oxygen deprivation
    • Physical Agents
    • Chemical Agents
    • Infectious Agents
    • Immunologic Reactions
    • Genetic Derangements
    • Nutritional/Environmental Imbalances
  17. Oxygen deprivation
    Ischemia (loss of blood supply), inadequate blood oxygenation (caused by respiratory and cardiovascular diseases), any loss of oxygen carrying in the blood
  18. Physical agents
    Heat, cold, trauma (falling), radiation, electrical shock, etc.
  19. Chemical agents
    Alcohol, drugs, mercury, lead, etc.
  20. Infectious agents
    Viruses, fungus, parasites, etc.
  21. Immunologic Reactions
    • Responses to infections where our body causes injury to itself (autoimmune dzs)
    • Allergic reactions
  22. Genetic Derangements
    • Gene mutations
    • Big cause is radiation
  23. Nutritional/Environmental Imbalances
    Vitamin deficiency, mineral deficiency, etc.
  24. Acetominophen poisoning
    • Affects cats
    • Cats can't take ace; they will lose hemoglobin, so the blood will lose oxygen
  25. Arsenic poisoning
    Used to be one of the ways to treat heart disease
  26. Bracken fern poisoning
    Plant toxic to animals
  27. Ethylene glycol toxicity
    Antifreeze; dogs love the taste and smell of antifreeze
  28. Insecticide toxicity
    • Always use the recommended amount
    • Any more than that will kill the animal
  29. Poisonous plants
    They are everywhere; all animals get into poisonous plants at some point
  30. Rodenticide poisoning
    • Dogs are attracted to them because they use the smell of peanut butter
    • Doesn't normally attract cats
  31. Salt toxicity
    • Too much salt is toxic to animals
    • Too much salt in meat that we feed dogs
  32. Sweet clover poisoning
    • Wild plant
    • Most commonly affects larger animals like horses and cows because they grow in big fields/pastures
  33. Absorption occurs:
    Via skin, GI tract, inhaled thru lungs, eyes, bites, uterus, mammary glands (for animals)
  34. Toxicant
    The actual toxic agent
  35. Toxin
    Poisons produced by a biological source such as snake venom and Anthrax
  36. Toxicity
    • Amount of toxicant needed to produce a detrimental effect
    • Not the same as poison
  37. Hazard
    Likelihood of poisoning under the conditions of use
  38. Tolerance
    Ability of organism to show less of a response to a specific dose of toxin than it showed in a previous response
  39. LD50
    • Lethal dose of which 50% of the animals die
    • How much can we give until it kills the animal
  40. Metabolism and Excretion
    • Phase 1: Oxidation reduction and Hydrolysis
    • Phase 2: Conjugation and Synthesis
  41. 3 Primary Factors that affect poison activity
    • Exposure factors
    • Biologic factors
    • Chemical
  42. Exposure factors
    • Duration and frequency, how often, the dose, the route
    • Environmental things as well; temperature, pressure, humidity, climate, heat, etc.
  43. Biologic Factors
    Species, age, gender, weight, metabolism, nutritional state
  44. Chemical factors
    Determines solubility and therefore affects absorption