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___________ discovered that x-rays cause mutations.
___________ did virulent/nonvirulent bacterial experiments.
___________ concluded that transforming factor in bacteria is DNA.
___________ use radioactive tracers in bacteriophages.
- 1.) Herman Muller
- 2.) Frederick Griffith
- 3.) Maclyn McCarty
- 4.) Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
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_________ are where sister chromatids are joined and where microtubules attach during separation.
A histone has _____ subunits, and contributes (positive/negative) supercoils to the DNA.
_________ of the histone tails causes 30 nm filament formation (decreasing gene expression).
_________ causes 10 nm filament formation (allowing histone sliding and increasing gene expression).
- 1.) Methylation of arginine
- 2.) Acetylation of lysine
At any given time, the cell only has enough NTPs to make ___ % of the cell's nucleic acids.
Which type of enzyme is used to phosphorylate the NMPs to make NDPs and NTPs?
What pyrimidines are produced by the De Novo synthesis pathway? Purines?
- Just UMP. CTP is made by aminating UTP.
- Just IMP, which is converted to ATP or GTP.
List the process to synthesize TTP (dTTP)
- 1.) Pyrimidine De Novo synthesis of UMP.
- 2.) UMP --> UDP (NERD only works on NDPs)
- 3.) UDP --> dUDP
- 4.) dUDP --> dUTP --> dUMP ==> dTMP (by thymidylate synthase and methylenetetrahydrofolate)
What happens to methylenetetrahydrofolate after reacting with thymidylate synthase? How is it converted back to tetrahydrofolate? What cofactor is involved?
- 1.) It exists as dihydrofolate
- 2.) Dihydrofolate reductase
- 3.) NADPH
Hydroxyurea is a chemotherapy drug. How does it work?
It inhibits ribonucleotide reductase (NERD).
Fluorouracil is a chemotherapy drug. How does it work?
It inhibits thymidylate synthase.
Methotrexate and aminopterin are chemotherapy drugs. How do they work?
They inhibit dihydrofolate reductase.
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