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  1. ___________ discovered that x-rays cause mutations.
    ___________ did virulent/nonvirulent bacterial experiments.
    ___________ concluded that transforming factor in bacteria is DNA.
    ___________ use radioactive tracers in bacteriophages.
    • 1.) Herman Muller
    • 2.) Frederick Griffith
    • 3.) Maclyn McCarty
    • 4.) Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase

    * Must Grin, make her cheese.
  2. _________ are where sister chromatids are joined and where microtubules attach during separation.
  3. A histone has _____ subunits, and contributes (positive/negative) supercoils to the DNA.
    • 1.) 8
    • 2.) negative
  4. _________ of the histone tails causes 30 nm filament formation (decreasing gene expression).
    _________ causes 10 nm filament formation (allowing histone sliding and increasing gene expression).
    • 1.) Methylation of arginine
    • 2.) Acetylation of lysine
  5. At any given time, the cell only has enough NTPs to make ___ % of the cell's nucleic acids.
    1 %
  6. Which type of enzyme is used to phosphorylate the NMPs to make NDPs and NTPs?
    A kinase.
  7. What pyrimidines are produced by the De Novo synthesis pathway? Purines?
    • Just UMP. CTP is made by aminating UTP.
    • Just IMP, which is converted to ATP or GTP.
  8. List the process to synthesize TTP (dTTP)
    • 1.) Pyrimidine De Novo synthesis of UMP.
    • 2.) UMP --> UDP (NERD only works on NDPs)
    • 3.) UDP --> dUDP
    • 4.) dUDP --> dUTP --> dUMP ==> dTMP (by thymidylate synthase and methylenetetrahydrofolate)
  9. What happens to methylenetetrahydrofolate after reacting with thymidylate synthase? How is it converted back to tetrahydrofolate? What cofactor is involved?
    • 1.) It exists as dihydrofolate
    • 2.) Dihydrofolate reductase
    • 3.) NADPH
  10. Hydroxyurea is a chemotherapy drug. How does it work?
    It inhibits ribonucleotide reductase (NERD).
  11. Fluorouracil is a chemotherapy drug. How does it work?
    It inhibits thymidylate synthase.
  12. Methotrexate and aminopterin are chemotherapy drugs. How do they work?
    They inhibit dihydrofolate reductase.
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