ch20.txt

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rincrocci
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ch20.txt
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2011-05-08 23:12:41
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  1. Chapter 20
    • 1. What are the factors that contribute towards the threat of emerging infections?
    • Microbial evolution, complacency and the breakdown of public health infrastructures, changes in human behaviors, advances in technology, population expansion, development, mass production widespread distribution and importation of food and products, war and civil unrest climate changes
  2. 2. Epidemiology: What branch of science is this?
    The scientific method used to track population health and to find causes of disease in groups of people.
  3. 3. Epidemiologists and their role in controlling an epidemic
    they carry out investigations to find the source of the outbreak. They also design public health strategies to control and prevent future outbreaks.
  4. 4. Classification or categorization of outbreaks of diseases based on the frequency and distribution of disease.
    Sporadic, endemic, epidemic pandemic
  5. 5. Distinguish between common source epidemic and propagated epidemic, give examples.
    • Common source epidemic: involve contact with a single contamination source (contaminated water, cholera, Haiti),
    • propagated epidemics: result from person to person contact (mumps and chicken pox)
  6. 6. Factors that Influence the Epidemiology of Disease
    • The dose: generally lower the number of pathogen lower is the risk of an outbreak,
    • incubation period: longer incubation period, larger is the area going to be infected.
    • Population characteristics: certain groups of people are more likely to be infected immunity to pathogen
    • herd immunity, general health , malnutrition overcrowding and fatigue increase the susceptibility of people to an infectious disease, age, gender, religious and cultural practices, food habits and vaccines genetic background, natural immunity
  7. 7. What are the factors used by an epidemiologist to design strategies?
    How fast the disease spreads, mortality rate, incidence rate, prevalence.
  8. 8. Factors affecting the outcome of the outbreak. Mode of transmission
    The ease in which a microbe moves from person to person. The behavior of individuals and societies, global level- different populations interact through war, trade and travel, rapidly growing cities weather changes
  9. 9. What are nosocomial infections? Infections acquired from a hospital, Why are they dangerous? Many of the infected patients have a weakened immune system, hospitals foster the development if antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, invasive procedures and insertion of needles, catheters, tubes ect facilitate the transmission of microbes
  10. 1. How was smallpox eradicated? By cow pox vaccine
  11. 2.Humans as reservoirs, active carries those who have the microbial disease, healthy carriers, those who do not have the disease but harbor pathogens which are transmissible to other individual, (typhoid Mary), Chronic carriers, those who have recovered from the disease and are themselves immune to it but still carry the pathogen which can be spread.

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