quiz #2 – part #1

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dpeterson01
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84672
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quiz #2 – part #1
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2011-05-09 19:41:22
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  1. healthy people 2020
  2. what is healthy people 2020
    national goals set every 10 years to focus on national health concerns
  3. overall goals are to increase quality of life and
    years of healthy life to eliminate health disparities
  4. specific goals have
    41 areas of focus
  5. how many of those goals directly relate to physical therapy practice
    24
  6. what is physical activity
    any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in energy expenditure
  7. what is exercise
    • considered a subclass of physical activity
    • defined as planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement
    • done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness
  8. major risk factor categories
  9. inherited/biological
    • age
    • gender
    • race
    • susceptibility to disease
  10. environment
    • physical – air, water, noise, unsafe highways
    • social economical – income, housing, employment, status, education
    • family – divorce, death of a loved one, children leading
  11. behavioral
    • smoking
    • poor nutrition
    • drinking alcohol
    • activity
    • overuse of medications
    • fast driving/no seatbelts
    • pressure to succeed
  12. Mortality Data
  13. what are the top seven causes of death in the United States
    • heart disease
    • cancer
    • stroke
    • chronic lung disease
    • accidents
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • diabetes
  14. what is the #1cause of mortality in the United States
    heart disease
  15. age for men and women
    • women >55
    • men > 45
  16. family history
    myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or sudden death before 55 years of age and father or male first-degree relatives, or before 65 years of age and mother or other female first-degree relative
  17. sedentary lifestyle
    no participation in at least 30 min. of moderate intensity ( 40 – 60% VO2R) physical activity on at least three three days of the week for at least three months
  18. obesity
    body mass index > 30 kg m2 or waste girth > 102 cm for men and > 88cm for women
  19. hypertension
    systolic blood pressure > 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic > 90 mmHg, conference by measurements on at least two separate occasions, or on hypertensive medication
  20. dyslipidemia
    • >130 mg dL or high density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg dL or on lipid lowering medication
    • if total serum cholesterol is all that is available use >200 mg dL
  21. prediabetes
    >=100 mg dL
  22. tobacco use
    • causes vasoconstriction
    • increased blood viscosity
    • decreased 02 and blood
    • increases release of epinephrine
    • may increase blood glucose
  23. serum cholesterol
    total
    <200 mg/dL
  24. LDL
    70 – 160 mg/dL (<100 optimal for CVD)
  25. HDL
    40 – 60 mg/dL (> 40 is optimal)
  26. total cholesterol/HDL ratio
    3.5 is optimal
  27. what accelerates atherosclerosis
    • type II diabetes
    • prediabetes
  28. what is atherosclerosis
    caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries, which supplies the heart with blood and oxygen
  29. where the major risk of atherosclerosis
    • smoking
    • diet high in saturated fats
    • diabetes
    • family history
  30. sedentary lifestyle – how often should you exercise each week
    • should exercise 30 min., three times a week
    • goal is five times a week
  31. what factors can be modified to adjust cardiovascular fitness
    • smoking
    • body weight
    • blood glucose
    • diet
    • activity level
  32. which factors cannot be modified
    • age
    • family history
    • gender
  33. Cancer
  34. what are the major risk factors of cancer
    • tobacco use
    • high fat or low fiber diet
    • alcohol
    • occupational and environmental exposure
    • lack of exercise
  35. what is the deadliest cancer in the United States affecting both men and women
    lung cancer
  36. what is the deadliest cancer in the United States affecting men
    prostate
  37. what is the highest incident cancer in females
    breast cancer
  38. Strokes
  39. where are the risk factors
    • high blood pressure
    • tobacco use
    • elevated serum cholesterol
    • physical inactivity
  40. Chronic Lung Disease
  41. what are the risk factors
    • tobacco use
    • occupational and environmental exposure
  42. Accidents
  43. what are some accidents that occur
    • seatbelt not use
    • cycle helmet nonuse
    • alcohol and other substance abuse
    • reckless driving
    • occupational hazards
    • guns in the home
    • stress and fatigue
  44. Alzheimer's Disease
  45. true or false – this is currently moving up in the list
    true
  46. what are some of the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease
    • family history
    • smoking
    • lack of aerobic exercise
    • atherosclerosis
    • high blood pressure
  47. Diabetes
  48. 90 – 95% of diabetes type II is associated with
    overweight and obesity
  49. accelerated atherosclerosis is caused by
    impaired metabolism
  50. what is a leading cause of death worldwide
    infection and parasitic diseases– third world countries
  51. Syndrome X Or Metabolic CV
    increased resistance ( type II diabetes)+ dyslipidemia – abnormal triglycerides + hypertension + obesity ( especially abdominal) = deadly quartet
  52. benefits of aerobic exercise
  53. what are the benefits of aerobic exercise
    • increase aerobic capacity/cardiorespiratory endurance
    • increased ability to extract oxygen in trained muscles
    • increase stroke volume
    • decreased resting heart rate
    • decrease submaximal heart rate
    • improve body composition
    • increase in fibrolytic affect– decrease clotting
    • decreased interesting blood pressure in hypertensive people
    • improve cholesterol levels
    • decrease triglycerides
    • increase in glucose utilization
    • improvement and psychological well-being
    • decreased risk for CAD by eliminating risk factors
  54. health objectives 2020 US public health service
  55. participate in sustained physical activity ( brisk walking) four
    at least 30 min. a day
  56. engage in aerobic exercise
    three or more days per week for 20 min. or more
  57. participate activity to enhance
    muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility
  58. Physical Activity Research
  59. residents of rural South, including parts of Kentucky, are
    • most sedentary
    • 31.6% versus 27.4%
  60. what are the percentages for BMI in the national average
    27.4%
  61. true or false – people who are the most obese have the least amount of formal education
    true
  62. Risk of Exercise
  63. death in rare cases
    1/15,000 – 20,000 adults with vigorous exercise
  64. death during exercise in people >30 yo are usually
    related to CAD and sudden death
  65. death during exercise <30 years usually due to
    congenital heart or blood vessel problems
  66. Hormones Respones to Exercise
  67. What are hormones
    chemical messengers
  68. what are hormones made of
    steroids derivatives made from cholesterol in adrenal cortex and gonad
  69. amino acid
    polypeptide derivatives made in stomach, intestines, etc.
  70. what are prostaglandins
    biologically active lipids in cell membranes
  71. what is the master gland
    pituitary gland
  72. the anterior pituitary lobe
    adenhypophysis
  73. the posterior pituitary lobe
    neural hypothesis
  74. what are the overall goals for the endocrine system during exercise
    • mobilize fuel for production of ATP
    • maintain blood glucose levels
    • enhance cardiac output
    • increased blood supply to active tissue
    • maintain blood pressure by stabilizing fluid and electrolyte light balance

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