Social Neuroscience

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Social Neuroscience
2011-05-09 02:00:18
Cog Neuro

Cog Neuro Exam #3
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  1. Social Neuroscience
    interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how bioligical systems implement social processes and behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior
  2. Size of cortex scales with
    size of social groups
  3. Phineas Gage after injury
    • fitful, irreverent, indulgivng in profanity
    • plans of future operation abandoned and replaced
    • unable to continue work, lack of inhibition
  4. Where was Phineas Gage's lesion?
    Ventromedial prefrontal cortex
  5. Self-related words and memory
    Memory is better for self-related words
  6. why is memory for self-related words better?
    because as we are evaluating an adjective, we are able to draw on associations from long-term representations. we cannot do this for other people
  7. which brain region involved in self-referential processing (rumination)
    medial prefronal cotex
  8. does KC have a sense of self even without episodic memory?
  9. Default network
    • Regions that are more active during passive fixation than when making abstract/concrete judgments on words
    • mPFC
    • highly active at "rest"
  10. Default network activity shown by
    PET study - resting levels of cerebral blood flow
  11. Fixation study
    • active task vs. passive fixation-
    • passive fixation associated with default network activation and self-referential processing
  12. Default Network hihgly active during these tasks
    • autobiographical memory
    • envisioning the future
    • theory of mind
    • moral decision making
  13. Theory of Mind
    ability to attribute mental states (beliefs, intents, desires, pretedning, knowledge, etc) to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires and intentions that are different from one's own
  14. Theory of Mind story example
    burglar who just robbed a store stopped by police because he dropped his glove, burglar gives himself up
  15. TOM stories have greater
    mPFC activation
  16. TOM cartoon examples
    • piano hitting man
    • guy with marker around his eyes from telescope
  17. Saxe and Kanwisher (2003)
    • false belief story - Emily and John car
    • false photograph story - apple on ground photo on tree
  18. Saxe & Wexler experiement stages
    • 1. localize TOM region of Temporal Parietal Junciton (TPJ) by comparing response during False belief (TOM) stories to false photograph (non-TOM) stories
    • 2. Subjects read stores that describe either thoughts, bodily sensations, or appearance of another person
  19. Saxe & Wechsler results of TPJ response
    TPJ associated wiht thoughts (thoughts and false belief stories are the same line in graph)
  20. Controversy about rTPJ functions
    for Spatial cuing paradigm, the invalid condition elicits a larger neural response
  21. Other theory of mind structures
    Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS)
  22. STS activity is greater for
    Congruent vs. Incongruent tasks (integrating eye gaze with mental states)

    (checkerboard image and persons eyes)
  23. Autism and mPFC
    Correlation between functional activity in ventral mPFC and score on the social subscale of the ADIS
  24. Viewers with autism spend more time fixating on
    the mouth and body , while normal viewers spent more time on teh eyes
  25. Structural and functional abnormalities in autism
    • mPFC
    • TPJ
    • STS
    • Amygdala
  26. We observe both ____and ______activation during both self- and other- based social processing
    mPFC and rTPJ
  27. are the same systems involved in understand the self and understanding others?
  28. Simulation Theory
    TOM is based on an ability to put ourselves in the shoes of another person, using our own minds to simulate what might be going on in the minds of someone else

    empathy botox example