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What is cancer? What is a tumor?
- cancer = a malignant and invasive growth of tumor
- tumor = a loss of control of cell proliferation or apoptosis that leads to the formation of a mass of cells
What makes a tumor benign or malignant?
- Benign (adenoma) = a tumor tht remains at its orginial site w/o any potential to spread
- Malignant (adenocarcinoma) = a tumor that invades other tissues
What are some consequences of cancer?
severe tissue damage, organ failure, and eventually death
What is Familial Cancer? Hereditary Cancer?
- Familial = cancers that affect a # of members of a family and are not necessarily inherited
- Hereditary = cancers that are inherited; b/c of germline mutations
How is X-chromosome inactivation different in females with cancer?
- normal tissues have mixture of paternal or maternal X-chromosome inactivation
- in females, tumor cells have same X-chromosome inactivation
What is Clonal Evolution?
a tumor develops through repeated rounds of mutation and proliferation, giving rise eventually to a clone of fully malignant cells
What are Cancer-critical genes? What 2 kinds are there and definition of it?
- they include all the genes whose mutation or abnormal expression causes
- 1) oncogenes = expression TURNS the normal growth into cancer
- 2) tumor suppressor genes = expression PREVENTS cancer development
What 3 approaches helped identified Oncogenes?
- 1) Human Leukemias involving chromosome translocations
- 2) Retrovirus-induced cancers in Animals3) Using DNA recombinant technology to study cell transformtion using Cell lines
What is IGH in IGH-Myc?
the enhancer of immunoglobin heavy chain gene which is highly active in B cells
What is Bcl2 gene?
- causes excessive production of the Bcl2 proein under IgH enhancer
- stands for beta cell lymphoma 2
- excessive Bcl2 prevents apoptosis and decreases cells' sensitivity to anticancer drugs, which commonly work by causing cancer cells to undergo apoptosis