BIMM110- 2

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  1. What is cancer? What is a tumor?
    • cancer = a malignant and invasive growth of tumor
    • tumor = a loss of control of cell proliferation or apoptosis that leads to the formation of a mass of cells
  2. What makes a tumor benign or malignant?
    • Benign (adenoma) = a tumor tht remains at its orginial site w/o any potential to spread
    • Malignant (adenocarcinoma) = a tumor that invades other tissues
  3. What are some consequences of cancer?
    severe tissue damage, organ failure, and eventually death
  4. What is Familial Cancer? Hereditary Cancer?
    • Familial = cancers that affect a # of members of a family and are not necessarily inherited
    • Hereditary = cancers that are inherited; b/c of germline mutations
  5. How is X-chromosome inactivation different in females with cancer?
    • normal tissues have mixture of paternal or maternal X-chromosome inactivation
    • in females, tumor cells have same X-chromosome inactivation
  6. What is Clonal Evolution?
    a tumor develops through repeated rounds of mutation and proliferation, giving rise eventually to a clone of fully malignant cells
  7. What are Cancer-critical genes? What 2 kinds are there and definition of it?
    • they include all the genes whose mutation or abnormal expression causes
    • 1) oncogenes = expression TURNS the normal growth into cancer
    • 2) tumor suppressor genes = expression PREVENTS cancer development
  8. What 3 approaches helped identified Oncogenes?
    • 1) Human Leukemias involving chromosome translocations
    • 2) Retrovirus-induced cancers in Animals
    • 3) Using DNA recombinant technology to study cell transformtion using Cell lines
  9. What is IGH in IGH-Myc?
    the enhancer of immunoglobin heavy chain gene which is highly active in B cells
  10. What is Bcl2 gene?
    • causes excessive production of the Bcl2 proein under IgH enhancer
    • stands for beta cell lymphoma 2
    • excessive Bcl2 prevents apoptosis and decreases cells' sensitivity to anticancer drugs, which commonly work by causing cancer cells to undergo apoptosis
Card Set
BIMM110- 2
after midterm material
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