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What is cancer? What is a tumor?
= a malignant and invasive growth of tumor
= a loss of control of cell proliferation or apoptosis that leads to the formation of a mass of cells
What makes a tumor benign or malignant?
Benign (adenoma) = a tumor tht remains at its orginial site w/o any potential to spread
Malignant (adenocarcinoma) = a tumor that invades other tissues
What are some consequences of cancer?
severe tissue damage, organ failure, and eventually death
What is Familial Cancer? Hereditary Cancer?
Familial = cancers that affect a # of members of a family and are not necessarily inherited
Hereditary = cancers that are inherited; b/c of germline mutations
How is X-chromosome inactivation different in females with cancer?
normal tissues have mixture of paternal or maternal X-chromosome inactivation
in females, tumor cells have same X-chromosome inactivation
What is Clonal Evolution?
a tumor develops through repeated rounds of mutation and proliferation, giving rise eventually to a
of fully malignant cells
What are Cancer-critical genes? What 2 kinds are there and definition of it?
they include all the genes whose mutation or abnormal expression causes
= expression TURNS the normal growth into cancer
tumor suppressor genes
= expression PREVENTS cancer development
What 3 approaches helped identified Oncogenes?
involving chromosome translocations
2) Retrovirus-induced cancers in
3) Using DNA recombinant technology to study cell transformtion using
What is IGH in IGH-Myc?
the enhancer of immunoglobin heavy chain gene which is highly active in B cells
What is Bcl2 gene?
causes excessive production of the Bcl2 proein under IgH enhancer
stands for beta cell lymphoma 2
and decreases cells' sensitivity to anticancer drugs, which commonly work by causing cancer cells to undergo apoptosis
after midterm material