Sociology

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Sociology
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2010-02-28 15:31:39
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First exam for sociology cards
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  1. Sociology:
    Systematic and scientific study of human behavior, social group, and society.
  2. Sociological immagination:
    a quality of mind that provides an understanding of ourselves within context of the larger society.
  3. Critical thinking:
    assessing ideas, statements, and information.
  4. Sociological thinking:
    asking questions and question answers. Requires taking a closer look at social world.
  5. Theoretical perspective:
    a view point or particular way of looking at things. Three perspectives: Symbolic interactionist, Conflict, and functionalist.
  6. Symbolic interactionist perspective:
    Views social meaning as arising through the process of social interaction. Engages in "microlevel analysis" which focuses on day to day interaction of people and group in specific social situations.
  7. Meaningful symbols:
    Interactionist perspective, involves sounds, objects, colors, events, and language.
  8. Looking glass self:
    interactionist perspective, an individuals self conecpt is largely a reflection of how he or she is perveived by other members of society.
  9. Dramaturgical analysis:
    symbolic interactionist perspective, uses analogy of the theater to analyze social behaviors.
  10. Labeling approach:
    Symbolic interactionist perspective, contends that people attach various labels to certain behaviors, individuals, and groups that become part of their social idenity and shape other attitudes about and reponsces to them.
  11. The structural functionlist perspective:
    Views society as a system of interdependent and interrelated parts. Within overall structure of the system, each part fulfils a specific function, which contributes to the overall functioning of the entire system.
  12. Social structure:
    functionalist perspective, each structure has important components (family, religion, education, politics, economy) These are "interelated and interdependent". Each have important "function" when each are functioning they are at a social equalibirum or balance.
  13. Manifest Function:
    Functionlist perspective, anticipated or intended consequences of social insitutions.
  14. Latent Functions:
    Functionlist, unintended or unrecongnized consequences of social institution. (higher education provies knowlege,(manifest. But it may also be a place for meeting marriage partners (latent).
  15. Dyfunction:
    Functionlist perspective, threathen to disturb social stablity or order ( example: crime).
  16. The conflict perspective:
    Views society as composed of diverse groups with conflicitng values and intrests.
  17. The marxian approach to conflict:
    According to Marx, conflict are determined by economics and are based on social class and struggles between diffrent values and intrests of bourgeoisie and the proletariat is an evitable. Dominat groups attempt to forice its values and ideology on less powerful. Results in domination and exploitation of the masses (proletriant) by the rich and powerful members of society.
  18. The neoconflict approach:
    Class conflict in industrilized countries is not so much struggle over the mean of production but rather a result of unequal distribution of authority.
  19. Theory:
    Set of interrelated propositions or statements that attempts to explain some phenomenon.
  20. Inductive reasoning:
    Use of specific observation to develop a general understanding.
  21. Deductive reasoning:
    Begins with a general understanding or theory that is then tested through the observation or study of specific situations.
  22. Concept:
    abstract idea of general thought.
  23. Conceptual definition:
    defining a concept through the use of other concepts.
  24. Operational definiton:
    How a concept is measured. Such as saying junveniles are 7-18.
  25. Validity:
    extent to which a technique accuratly measures what is purpose to measure.
  26. Reliablity:
    consistency of measurement.
  27. Variable:
    Represents ways in which concepts vary or differ (sex, rac, age)
  28. Proposition:
    a statment that interrelates two or more variable. Such as: "Delinquencey rates are higher among males than females". Two variables=sex, and delinquency rates.
  29. Correlation:
    A measure indicating that two variables are related in such a way that a change in one is a accompanied by change in the other.
  30. Causation:
    Relationship in which a change in one variable creates a concomitant change in another variable.
  31. Scientific Method of reseach: 1st: Statement of the problem:
    formulate reseach question
  32. Scientific method of reseach: 2nd: Review of Literature:
    Sociologist seek our previous studies to determine what is already known about the problem.
  33. Scientific method of reseach: 3rd: Developing a hypothesis:
    Based on what is already known about the topic, the reseacher develops a hypothesis a propositional statment about the relationship between concepts or variables understudy.
  34. Scientific method of research: 4th: Choice of research desgin.
    Qualitive, quantitive, and mixed.
  35. Scientific method of research: 5th: Data collection
    Researchers collects the observations, facts, information, to use in testing hypothesis or fufiling research objectives.
  36. Scientific method of research: 6th: Data analysis and interpretation:
    Reserachers considers the studys findings and determins what the mean.
  37. Scientific method of research: 7th: Development of conclusion
    Researchers makes generalization and draws conclusion regarding hypotheses or objectives.
  38. Scientific method of research:8th: New research Question
    identifying new problems for future research.
  39. Qualitative:
    to observe and interperet data. Interviews, behaviors, trends, patterns are analyzed.
  40. Mean:
    average by adding up all figures and diving by number of cases.
  41. Median:
    mid point
  42. Mode:
    figure that occurs most often
  43. exploratory research:
    attempts to answer "what".
  44. Descriptive research:
    answers what and how.
  45. explanatory reserach:
    explains social phenomenoa by answering questions, what, how and why.
  46. Evaluation research:
    measures effectivness of a program
  47. Quantitative research design:
    emphasizes the use of numbers, statistics to analyze and explain social events and behavior.
  48. Secondary analysis:
    analysis of exsisting data
  49. Experimental design:
    a research that attempts to discover a cuase and effect relationship between two variables.
  50. Interdependent variable:
    a variable that brings about change in another variable (cause).
  51. dependent variable:
    a variable that is changed by independent variable (effect)
  52. intervening variable:
    variables that may come between interdepent and dependent variables.
  53. Control group:
    Subjects not exposed to the experiment
  54. Experimental group:
    subjects exposed to the independent variable in an experiment (quantitative research).
  55. Survey research:
    research using questionaire or interview (quantiative)
  56. Hawthrone effect:
    subjects behavior is influenced by the fact that they are being studied.
  57. Qualitative reserach:
    a research design that uses systematic obervation and focuses on the meaning of people give to their social actions.
  58. Ethnographic interview:
    A qualitiative technique where the researchers talk with people in an effort to learn as much possible about them and their behavior.
  59. Participant observation:
    A qualitative method in which the reseracher systematically observes the people being studied while participating with them in their acitivites.
  60. Case studies:
    Qualitative research which involves intensive observation of a particular person, group or even.
  61. The interactionist perspective to research:
    focuses on micro level. Sociogist using this perspective will use "qualitative" research. Such as: ehnographic interviews, particpant observations, and case study.
  62. Functionlist perspective research:
    macrolevel approach. Manifest, and latent function. Sociologist who use this perspective use quantitative research design. Such as, questionaire, surveys, data collection from represntative samples of large population.
  63. The conflict perspective in research:
    Marolevel analysis. Quantitative research method is used. Secondary analysis, surveys. Conflic perpective research focuses on social diversity, conflict. Theorist attempt to assess the impact of social variable such as, age, sex, race, and socioecnomic status. Often, crime rate, data from other large scale survey.
  64. Society:
    people who live in a specific geographic territory interact with one another and share many elements of common culture.
  65. Hunthing gathering:
    people make their living by hunting, fishing, collecting wild food. 10,000-50,000 yrs ago.
  66. Pastoral society:
    depends for its livelihod on domestic animals. 5,000-10,000 yrs ago.
  67. horticultural society:
    hand tools are used to grow domesticated crops. 5,000-10,000yrs ago.
  68. Agraian society:
    depends on crops raised with plow, draft animals, intensive agriculture methods. 5,000-1750AD yrs ago.
  69. Industiral Society:
    relies on machinary and advanced technology to produce and distrubute food, information, goods and service. 18-20century.
  70. Post industrial society:
    industires and the manufacture of information and knowlege dominant the economy. Late 20-21 century.
  71. Socioculture evolution:
    a process in which societies grow more complex in terms of technology, social stucture, and cultural knowledge over time.
  72. Culture:
    The learned set of beliefs, values, norms, and material goods, shared by a group of members.
  73. Material culture:
    artifacts, art, archtecture, and other tangible goods, that people creat and assign meaning. (TV, art, technology, malls, supermarket)
  74. non material culture:
    mental blue prints that serve as guidelines for group behavior. Language, values, norms, attitudes of group
  75. Culture shock:
    feeling of confusion, and disorientation, that occurs when a person encounters a vary diffrent culture.
  76. Ethocentrism:
    tendency to evaluate the customs of other groups according to own cultural standards.
  77. Cultural Relativisim:
    a perspective in which asks that we evaluate other cultures according to their standards not ours.
  78. Subculture:
    group that shares many elements of main stream culture but maintains their own distinctive customs, values, norms, and lifestyle.
  79. Counterculture:
    group that rejects conventional wisdom and standards of behavior of the majority and provide altternative to mainstream culture.
  80. Multiculturalism:
    movement that encourages respect and appriciation for cultural diffrences.
  81. Eurocentrism:
    the belief that european culture have contributed the most to human kowledge and are superior to all others.
  82. Afrocentrism:
    emphasizes that preeminence of African American culture in human development.
  83. Society culture and functionalism:
    Functionalism shows how the cultural practices of group tend to "fit together" called cultural integration.
  84. Society and culture from conflict perspective:
    according to conflict perpective, the values, beliefs and traditions of a nat ions or society are not necessarilty a product of consensus and "social need".
  85. Symbolic interactionism, society and culture:
    the interactionist approach focuses on how individuals and groups use symbols to define and interpret reality. People everywhere live in "symbolic worlds".

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