Fluids flashcards.txt

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  1. Intracellular (ICF)
    Within body cells
  2. Extracellular (ECF)
    Outside the cells � Interstitial, Intravascular, & Transcellular
  3. Intake
    Drinking fluids (2700ml per day). 20% from food and metabolism. Thirst is the major regulator of intake.
  4. Output
    Urine-1500mL/day. Feces-100-200 mL/day. Insensible loss � skin (perspiration) and lungs (breath).
  5. Aldostrone
    Increase re-absorption of sodium and water. Secretion of K+ in the kidneys. Increases blood volume & increases BP.
  6. ADH (Anti-diuretic hormone)
    AKA Arginine vasopressin. Nine amino acid peptide secreted from the pituitary.
  7. Natriuretic Peptide A-type
    Secreted largely by the atrial myocardium in response to dilation.
  8. Natriuretic Peptide B-type
    Manufactured mainly by the ventricular myocardium.
  9. Natriuretic Peptide C-type
    Produced by the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels.
  10. Natriuresis
    The excretion of an excessively large amount of sodium in the urine.
  11. Hypovolemia
    Deficient fluid volume (blood) and occurs when there is a proportional loss of fluid and electrolytes form the EFC.
  12. Dehydration
    A state of negative fluid balance in which there is loss of water from the intracellular, extracellular, and intravascular spaces.
  13. Fluid volume deficits, like hypovolemia or dehydration nursing interventions:
    Assess vital signs, capillary refill, neuro status, and daily weight. Monitor electrolytes, CBC, and urine output. Initiate and maintain IV access. Administer isotonic fluid replacement and I&O. Report urine output <30mL/hr to provider. Ensure safety and gait stability. Observe for nausea and vomiting.
  14. Hypervolemia
    The retention of excessive amounts of sodium and water in the EFC.
  15. Edema
    Excess fluid accumulated in the tissues.
  16. Fluid volume excesses, like hypervolemia nursing interventions:
    Monitor vital signs, I&O, & daily weights. Assess lung sounds (dim with crackles) and edema. Monitor for shortness of breath & set in semi-Fowler�s position. Check ABG, CBC, and chest X-ray results. Limit fluid and NA+ intake, administer diuretics, and supplement O2 if prescribed. Reposition every two hours if not mobile.
  17. Isotonic
    Same solute concentration, expands vascular volume.
  18. Hypertonic
    Higher solute concentration, increased vascular volume. Pulls fluid into blood stream and out of cells.
  19. Hypotonic
    Lower solute concentration, decreases vascular volume. Pulls fluid into cells and out of blood stream.
  20. Sodium
    Regulates fluid balance, strengthens skeletal structures, and acts as catalysts for conduction, contraction, and metabolism and are distributed in the ICF and ECF � can be measured in plasma but not in cells.
  21. Normal Sodium Levels
    135-145 mEq/L
  22. Hyponatremia
    Na+<136; Osmol<280
  23. Hypernatremia
    Na+>145; Osmol>300
  24. Normal Potassium Levels
    3.5 � 5.0 mEq/L
  25. Hypokalemia
  26. Hyperkalemia
  27. Normal Calcium Levels
    9.0-10.5 mg/dL
  28. Hypocalcemia
  29. Hypercalcemia
    Ca>10.5 mg/dL
  30. Normal Magnesium Levels
    1.3 � 2.1 mE/L
  31. Hypomagnesemia
    Mg2+<1.3 mg/dL
  32. Active transport
    Movement of fluid and solutes across the membrane requiring energy.
  33. Passive transport
    Movement of fluid and solutes across the membrane requiring no energy.
  34. Osmosis
    Movement of water across the membrane from less concentration to more concentration.
  35. Osmolality/Tonicity
    Concentration of solutes providing pressure in body fluid.
  36. Isotonic
    A fluid that is the same osmolality as blood.
  37. Hypotonic
    Lower osmolality than blood.
  38. Hypertonic
    Higher osmolality than blood.
  39. Diffusion
    Passive process by which molecules of a solute move through a cell membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
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Fluids flashcards.txt
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